June 16th 1942 loss of Stirling LS-X.

On June 16th, 1942, Stirling LS-X #N6088, took off from RAF Waterbeach in Cambridgeshire, on a routine training flight. On board that day were: (Pilot) P/O. M. Scansie (RNZAF); Sgt. E. Morris; Flt/Sgt. J. Tomlinson; Sgt. D. Robinson; Sgt. J. Smith; Sgt. R. Broadbridge; Flt/Sgt. H. Johnson (RCAF) and Sgt. R. Le Blanc.

At 15:25 the aircraft, a Stirling MK.I of ‘C’ Flight 1651 Conversion Unit (CU), left Waterbeach heading north-westerly. It was to be a routine cross country navigation exercise.

Around forty-five minutes later, the aircraft was seen on fire, and falling in a spiral toward the ground with its port wing detached, outside of the outboard engine. The bomber hit the ground on the Great North Road near to Barnby Moor.

The crew flying the aircraft that day were a young crew, the pilot being 24 years of age, whilst Sgt. Ernest Morris was 19, Sgt. David Robinson – 21, Sgt. Roland Broadbridge – 20, Flt/Sgt. Harry Johnson – 26 and Sgt. R. Le Blanc. the oldest at 27 years of age.

What also made this particular accident more significant was that the Stirling, a veteran of European Operations, had flown for nearly 250 hours on twenty-two operational sorties, a remarkable achievement for a Stirling!

The Stirling would prove to be a poor bomber. Designed to Air Ministry Specification B.12/36 (the very reason it was to be poor), it had to have a reduced wingspan to enable it to fit inside the currently available hangars. This reduction gave poor lift qualities, barely able to achieve more than 17,000 feet when fully loaded. Another restrictive feature was the bomb bay design. Being sectioned it could not accommodate the larger bombs being brought into production as the war progressed, thus it underachieved compared to its stable mates the Halifax and Lancaster. The original specification set out such requirements, and so the design was flawed from the start. It did however, have good low altitude handling capabilities, but this wasn’t enough to secure its future as a long term investment in Bomber Command.

As a bomber, casualties in Stirlings were high, and toward the end of the war it was reduced to secondary operations, an area where it more than proved its worth as both a glider tug, mine layer and paratroop transport aircraft.

Apart from Sgt. Robinson, all of the crew are buried at Finningley, St. Oswalds Church. Sgt. Robinson is buried in his home town Bedlay Cemetery, Lanark.

RAF Waterbeach appears in Trail 11.

Sources and Further Reading.

The crew’s interment along with photos of Raymond Le Blanc are available on the Compagnons de la Libération du Havre website.

Chorley. W., “Bomber Command Losses Heavy Conversion Units and Miscellaneous Units 1939-1947 ” Midland Publishing, 2003.

 

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RAF Glatton – a short lived airfield with a big history (Part 3)

In the last two parts (Part 1 and Part 2) of RAF Glatton – a short lived airfield with a big history, we see the war draw to a close and those left at Glatton begin dreaming of home. But as the year turns to 1945, there is still plenty to do and many more missions to fulfil. 

January 1945 and Glatton’s 457th continued the battle, returning to skies over Germany once more. This time they were assigned to the oil refinery at Derben, an industrial target sitting on the banks of the Elbe to the west of Berlin. A massed and concentrated attack, it saw all the 1st Air Division in operation along with both the 2nd and 3rd Air Divisions. In all 850 B-17s and B-24s were launched that winter’s day. With cloud covering large parts of the continent, targets were difficult to find, the Group had to deviate from both its primary and secondary targets, as neither could be seen for visual bombing. Instead Kassel was chosen as a target of opportunity, and the bomb run made. Again, cloud covered much of the area, but the target itself was found to be clear and so the formation followed a Pathfinder force and bombed on their markers.

Whilst Flak was light, it was considered accurate, with fourteen aircraft being damaged, but thankfully there were no 457th losses that day, and all crews returned to Glatton safely. It was during this mission that B-17 #42-38021 “Mission Maid” achieved her seventy-fifth mission, a remarkable achievement for any heavy bomber of the Second World War. In February she would be forced down onto French soil, after which she was declared ‘War Weary’ and transferred No. 5 SAD where she was modified to carry lifeboats. In July 1945 she was then transferred to the United States where she was sold for scrap metal. During her operational life ‘Mission Maid‘ was credited with the downing of eight enemy aircraft – a sad end to a glorious career.

B-17G #42-38021 “Mission Maid” ‘K’ 748th BS at Glatton *7

The cold winter of 1944 / 45 also saw the German’s last-ditch effort to defeat the allied forces on the ground. With a massed counter attack through the Ardennes forests in what became famously called the ‘Battle of the Bulge’, the Germans surrounded the town of Bastogne and the 101st Airborne. The Glatton crews supported the ground troops by attacking resupply lines behind enemy lines, including the numerous failed attempts at the Remagen Bridge.

As the Allies fought their way over the Rhine, the Glatton crews were there in support attacking other targets behind German lines.

On April 20th 1945, the 457th flew their final operational mission, attacking the marshalling yards at Seddin, to the south of Berlin. With the end of the war just around the corner there was little resistance from either ground forces or the Luftwaffe, none of the 457th aircraft taking hits or suffering any damage, it was virtually a ‘milk run’.

Following VE day, the 457th flew POWs back from Europe to England, then with no further action to undertake, the airfield was handed back to the RAF’s No. 3 Group under the control of Bomber Command operating both the Avro Lancaster and Consolidated B-24 Liberators flying out to the Middle East.

By June the war for the 457th was over. The men and machines were transferred back to the United States with the aircraft leaving Glatton between May 19th and 23rd, and the ground echelons sailing on the Queen Elizabeth from Gourock in Scotland, at the end of June. After arriving at New York there was 30 days rest before the men assembled at Sioux Falls. Here the axe fell and the 457th was no more, the four squadrons being disbanded for good and the Group removed from the Air Forces inventory. Glatton was eventually closed and the site was sold off in 1948.

IMG_0365

The 50ft high Braithwaite water tower is virtually the only surviving structure at Glatton. Thus stands on the edge of the former Site 7.

The 457th had been short-lived. They had taken part in many of Europe’s major battles, seen action over Normandy, the breakout at St. Lo, supported the Airborne attack on Holland and the crossing over the Rhine into Germany itself. They had bombed many of Germany’s major cities, including the heart of the German Reich, Berlin. In all, the 457th flew 236 missions, dropping 17,000 tons of bombs, and destroying 33 enemy fighters (along with 12 probable and 50 damaged). They lost a total of 83 aircraft to enemy action, with a small number being scrapped following accidents and heavy flak damage.

Glatton quickly returned to agriculture. The vast technical area was demolished, concrete tracks were dug up and buildings removed. Two of the three runways however, remained, and during the 1970s flying activity began to return once more. The main runway was resurfaced, and is now used by the Peterborough Business Airport whilst the second runway remains in its original concrete but unlicensed for any aviation activity. The third runway has been turned into the road that traverses the site, but all other hard tracks have all but gone.

The original control tower was demolished years ago but a new one has been built and flying continues in the form of microlight, helicopter and fixed wing training.

Conington aug 2014 018

All Saints Church Memorial looking toward the airfield.

At the nearby All Saints Church in Conington, a memorial stands with the bust of a pilot looking over toward the field as if watching for lost comrades to return, a poignant and moving figure, it has gradually and very sadly begun to look rather unkempt. A further memorial has been erected adjacent to the only substantial building left, a water tower at what was the original entrance to the site next to the main A1 road. This tower now stands as a reminder of the days when B-17s would rumble over the fields on their way to occupied Europe, perhaps never to return. A small display is available in the flying school offices, a reminder to the budding flyers of today of the strong history and heritage of RAF Glatton.

From Glatton, the Trail continues on south. Here we find the second site of this trip, another American air base, that of RAF Kimbolton – home of the 379th BG.

Sources and Further Reading.

The full account can be found at Trail 6 – American Ghosts.

*1 Columbia Basin Herald, January 3rd, 2017, accessed 22/4/19.

*2 MACR 2917

*3 MACR 3197

*4 Image courtesy of 457th BG Association,

*5 Photo the 457th BG Association website.

*6 MACR 9767

*7 IWM (UPL 22067)

A website dedicated to the 457th, with diaries, stories and rare photos of Glatton is worth a visit for more information on the 457th.

379th Bomb Group Memorial update – 3 weeks to go!

A message from Mitch Peeke:

Another update for everyone, probably the final one as the event is now only three weeks away!

Everything is now pretty much “there”. We had a meeting at the Holiday Park to set out a rough timetable for the day which has now been emailed to all interested parties.

I picked up the metal supports for the plaque and storyboard yesterday. Just have to paint them now! They will be a slightly warm shade of blue, with a planished finish.

I finished mounting the plaque and the storyboard onto their respective mahogany pieces last weekend and have to admit that they look quite handsome! Three coats of Ronseal varnish brought the wood out beautifully!

The Holiday Park’s Grounds Team have now started construction of the memorial base. It will be in the form of an elongated diamond (landscape) with the plaque on the left side angled toward the crash site and the storyboard on the right angled slightly inwards toward the reader. The base will be bordered by white painted kerbstones and the whole diamond will be infilled with large plum slate chips. Once installed, the memorial will be covered with a US flag till it is unveiled.

The memorial will be unveiled jointly by Noel Tognazzini and Jeanne Cronis-Campbell; their path to the memorial flanked by an Honour Guard from TWO Squadrons of Air Cadets, whilst TAPS is being blown solo on a trumpet by the Leader of The Medway Big Band, who has been practising diligently, I am told!

After the brief unveiling and dedication ceremony, the Band will be playing the music of Glenn Miller and other relevant music for nearly two hours as a background to everything else that will be going on.

All we need now is for the English weather to smile upon us and it should be a good day and a fine tribute to those lost airmen.

Anyone wishing to make a contribution to the construction of the memorial costs can do so at: https://www.gofundme.com/ww2-aircrew-memorial  Any monies left over will be donated to the upkeep of of the B-17 ‘Sally B’, the last flying B-17 in Europe.

For those who don’t know, the original story as told by Mitch:

June 19th, 1944: Just thirteen days after the Allied D Day Invasion. The weather that day was dry, but the late afternoon sunshine over Kent in Southern England was hazy. A formation of around 30 American B17 “Flying Fortress” bombers from the 379th BG, part of “The Mighty Eighth”, were returning home across the Kent countryside, heading due North, toward their base at Kimbolton, in Huntingdonshire. They were returning from a raid on the V1 launching site at Zudausques in Northern France.

The raiders had taken some Flak, but thankfully, no German fighters had found them. They were doubtlessly busy elsewhere, trying to stem the Allied advances. But the Flak they had encountered had been accurate and had exacted a price from the 379th for their raid. Many of those B17’s were now badly damaged and flying home on three engines rather than four. More of them than not, now had “extra ventilation”, courtesy of the German Flak Gunners, and were trailing heavy smoke from those engines that remained running. However, the B17 was known to be “a good ship”. Inherently stable, it was a remarkable aircraft for its size, able to withstand a hell of a lot of battle damage and still be capable of flying. Many a pilot had been able to “nurse” one home, despite the odds. The crews all had faith in their aircraft. It was a faith that was born from hard experience in hostile skies.

The formation crossed the South coast of England at 21,000 feet. Leading the No. 2 Section was B17 Heavenly Body II, of the 525th Squadron, Captained by 1st Lieutenant Lloyd Burns. A veteran crew, this had been their 29th mission over enemy territory. Just one more mission and the crew would have completed their tour and then they’d be going home, Stateside. The D Day Invasion had of course been keeping them busy. This mission to the V1 site at Zudausques had been their second mission of the day.

Lloyd Burns was an exceptional pilot with an enviable reputation for pulling off the smoothest of landings under any circumstances. The original Heavenly Body had been written off quite recently when the brakes failed on landing. Not even Burns could prevent that aircraft from being a runaway and as the heavy B17 simply ran out of airfield space, she rolled off the end of the runway, down a small hill and straight into a pile of scrap concrete rubble. Miraculously, Burns and his entire crew walked away from that landing. They got a new aircraft and quickly named her Heavenly Body II. (In fact, there were at least 4 other US aircraft named Heavenly Body. Two B29’s, another B17 of the 401st Squadron and at least one B25, all of which had a pin-up girl as nose art). This was now their third mission in the replacement aircraft and although they’d not yet had the time to paint the name and art on the bomber’s nose, the crew had happily settled in to their new ship.

Just after the formation crossed the South coast, Lloyd Burns swapped seats with his co-pilot, 2nd Lieutenant Fred Kauffman. Fred was hoping to get a ship of his own after they completed their tour and had asked Lloyd if he could take over for the descent and landing, as he wanted more 1st pilot experience. Lloyd saw no reason not to. Now as the formation was beginning the let down toward Kimbolton, they gradually lost their height over Kent.

At nearly 18:15, the formation was almost over Allhallows and down to 17,000 feet. Ahead of them, left to right, was the Thames Estuary; even busier than usual, with all sorts of shipping, due in no small part to the D Day invasion traffic.

At 17,000 feet, the haze grew thicker. Fred Kauffman was beginning to work hard for his 1st pilot experience. He was having to fly more by instruments as the visibility forwards was down to about 1,000 yards and the horizon was beginning to disappear into the miasma, though to the airmen flying through it, it didn’t seem to be too bad at that moment.

Flying above and slightly behind Burns’ aircraft, was his Port Side Wingman. This B17  bore the serial number 44-6133, but  no name. The pilot was 2nd Lieutenant Armand Ramacitti and he was in trouble. This was his first combat mission and his B17 had been very badly damaged by the German Flak. He’d been nursing her along since leaving France behind. He’d already lost one engine, his Port elevator and a fair piece of the Starboard one had also been blown away and he had another engine on the Port side smoking heavily and running rough. Now, that engine was making an unbearably loud whining noise, looking and sounding as if it was about to seize up too. Jockeying the throttles on his remaining engines, Ramacitti was trying to compensate for the dropping power, but the flight controls were growing sloppy and with the Port elevator gone, maintaining the crippled bomber’s height was getting harder by the minute. She was beginning to give up the unequal struggle to stay in the air.

Ramacitti’s Bombardier, 2nd Lieutenant Theodore Chronopolis, saw that having surged slightly ahead of their leader, they were now dropping back, out of formation. He called Ramacitti on the intercom, warning him to pull up, as they were now dropping very close to Heavenly Body II. Ramacitti was desperately wrestling with the dying bomber’s controls, trying to claw back some height, but it was a losing battle. Without warning, 6133 side-slipped sickeningly to Starboard, literally dropping out of Ramacitti’s hands. Chronopolis frantically buckled on his parachute, as did the Navigator, for both men now knew with absolute certainty, what was coming next.

6133’s side-slip cut across the top of Burns’ aircraft at an angle of about 35 degrees. Engine bellowing, the Starboard outer prop cut into the top of Heavenly Body II‘s flight deck, right behind the Pilot’s window, killing Fred Kauffman instantly. The two aircraft momentarily locked together in a deadly embrace.

Theodore Chronopolis knew they’d hit Burns’ aircraft. All he’d heard was a very loud, sharp bang and a terrible rending sound, as the two aircraft collided. He and the Navigator went straight for the nearest escape hatch. The Flight Engineer and a couple of the Gunners were already there, but the hatch was totally jammed. Just then, 6133 rolled off Heavenly Body II‘s back and inverted. Thrown about inside the aircraft like a small toy, Theodore didn’t know what happened next. He recalled hearing another big bang, then he blacked out.

The momentum of 6133’s continuing side-slip had separated the two planes. As 6133 rolled off Heavenly Body II‘s back and then inverted, her Flak-battered Port wing now sheared off completely, which was probably the second bang that Theodore Chronopolis had heard. As the wing came off, 6133 started to spin, pointing her nose straight down and plunging headlong toward the muddy waters of the Thames Estuary below.

When Theodore came to, he was free-falling outside of the aircraft. Instinctively, he pulled the ripcord on his parachute, which thankfully deployed. As his descent rapidly slowed, he saw a B17 going down below him, its death-plunge marked by a thick trail of black smoke. Then shock set in and he blacked out again. Unbeknown to Theodore, he was the only one who’d got out of 6133 alive.

Literally moments before, on Heavenly Body II, Lloyd Burns suddenly realised that something was horribly wrong. He was about to reach over behind Fred to pull back the curtain. He wanted to see if their rookie wingman, Ramacitti, was keeping with them, when a terrible grinding noise to his left made him duck down instinctively. The daylight through the left side windows was blocked momentarily and he felt the aircraft shudder viciously. He realised in that instant that they’d been hit by another B17, which seemed to him, to be on top of them. Then as 6133 slid off the top, he looked over at Fred. Lloyd was in no doubt at all that Fred was now dead. The first thing Lloyd tried to do was to somehow stabilise the aircraft. Grabbing the controls, he found  the ailerons completely unresponsive and he got next to no feedback from the elevators. This was not surprising as the B17’s control cables ran centrally along the top of the fuselage. 6133’s prop had undoubtedly chopped through them. Heavenly Body II was still flying as she’d been trimmed, just; but for how much longer was the question.

Lloyd noticed that the Flight Engineer was at the escape hatch, trying to open it. Realising that he’d no hope of flying the plane, Lloyd quickly reached for where his parachute was stowed, but couldn’t find it. As he climbed off the flight deck, one of the crew thrust a chute into his hands and he hurriedly strapped it on; only partially as it turned out. He assisted the Engineer in forcing the escape hatch open then literally shoved him through it, as he immediately followed the Engineer himself. As his parachute opened, Lloyd realised he was only half in the harness. Hanging on for dear life, he saw a B17 going down in a steep turn with one engine smoking badly, but was unsure which of the two aircraft it was.

The Bombardier on Burns’ aircraft, Jack Gray, later recalled that the bomber’s Plexiglas nose had been all but severed and he suddenly found himself seemingly more outside of the aircraft than inside it. Jack pulled himself back in and went for his parachute.

Heavenly Body II continued flying, though steadily losing height, even though there was only the dead co-pilot at the now useless controls. Six of her crew managed to safely escape. The Ball Turret Gunner, S/Sgt William Farmer, was one of the last to leave, noting that the aircraft looked like it was coming apart. He needed no second telling to get out and fast.

The six crew members that managed to escape were: Pilot Lloyd Burns, Bombardier Jack Gray, Top Turret Gunner Leonard Gibbs, Ball Turret Gunner William Farmer, Tail Gunner Richard Andrews and Radio Operator/Gunner Leroy Monk. All but one of those six landed in the water and were rescued by fishing boats. Tail Gunner Richard Andrews came down on dry land at Canvey. The three men who didn’t make it were: Co-pilot Fred Kauffman, Navigator Edward  Sadler and Gunner Louis Schulte.

Crew of Heavenly Body II: Front Row, L to R: Edward Sadler; Fred Kauffman; Jack Gray; Lloyd Burns
Back Row, L to R; Louis Schulte; Leroy Monk; Richard Andrews; Richard Billings; William Farmer; Leonard Gibbs
Note that Richard Billings was part of the Burns crew on arrival at Kimbolton, but was the 10th man when crew size was reduced to 9, and so was not with the crew at the time of the collision. The survivors of the Burns crew are all deceased except for Richard Andrews. (Photo courtesy 379th BG Association archive,  by kind permission.)

6133 meanwhile, had gone straight down and crashed in twenty feet of water, in what was then a minefield, about half a mile or so off the west beach at Allhallows. The Estuary bottom was and still is, soft Thames mud and the main part of the wreck undoubtedly buried itself to some extent in the mud. (What remained of the wreckage was later salvaged, probably when the minefield was cleared). She had taken most of her crew with her, trapped inside.

Sole survivor Theodore Chronopolis, landed safely by parachute. He was fished out of the water by a passing  boat. The eight men of 6133’s crew who died that day were: Pilot 2nd Lt. Armand Ramacitti, Co-pilot 2nd Lt. William Hager, Navigator 2nd Lt. Donald Watson, Gunner S/Sgt. Richard Ritter, Gunner S/Sgt. Cecil Tognazzini, Gunner S/Sgt. John  Burke, Gunner Sgt. Warren Oaks and Gunner Cpl. Paul Haynes.

Meanwhile, having been abandoned by her crew, Heavenly Body II continued flying, somewhat erratically and losing height all the time. At first, she’d turned west and seemed to be heading directly toward the oil storage tanks at ShellHaven on Canvey Island. To those watching on the ground, a disaster seemed inevitable, then; still losing height, she miraculously turned east, away from the refinery, over the town, toward Canvey Point and the mudflats. It seemed as though the pilot was still trying to find somewhere safe to put her down. She then circled once over Canvey Point before she  finally nose-dived onto the mudflats, throwing an engine forward as she crashed.

To this day, those who can remember the event have always held the pilot of that aircraft in high esteem. Trouble was, the pilot was at that moment, just landing in the water off Canvey Island by parachute! Did Fred Kauffman not die in the collision after all? Had he somehow survived his injuries, regained consciousness and taken control of the shattered aircraft? Unlikely. Burns had tried to take control just after the collision and found the controls unresponsive. It is also extremely unlikely that Fred could have come round from such traumatic head injuries as he’d received when 6133’s Starboard outer prop cut through the roof and side of the Flight deck.

The answer probably has more to do with the B17’s inherent stability. With the nose section totally open and the escape hatches gone, the sheer force of the through-rushing air was probably responsible for the apparent “steering” of the aircraft. Also of course is the fact that, though a stable design, the aircraft was literally coming apart in flight. Who knows precisely how the aerodynamics were working, but one thing is certain, she was not being actively piloted.

The semi-submerged wreckage of Heavenly Body II remained on the mudflats for decades. Every so often, the tides would uncover more of it and bury other sections. The wreck was easily accessible and so subjected to many souveniring expeditions. A local historical society salvaged some of it and put it on display in a museum, until it closed. The thrown engine was salvaged fairly recently and together with some other artefacts, is now on display at another local museum. There is also a storyboard on the seafront close to the crash site at Canvey Point and a memorial plaque, dedicated to the memory of both crews. Sadly, there is nothing of the kind at Allhallows, where 6133 crashed.

Most of the bodies, including Ramacitti’s, were recovered; some at the time, some a little later, and are interred in the American Cemetery at Madingley, Cambridge; a long way from home. One body was later sent home. The body of Gunner Louis Schulte from 6133 now rests at home in a cemetery in St. Louis. Only two are still unaccounted for: Fred Kauffman, Co-pilot of Heavenly Body II and Gunner Cecil Tognazzini from 6133, both of whom are listed on the tablets of the missing at Madingley. Their last resting places are very probably in the soft Thames mud that their aircraft crashed in. They too, are a long way from home.

Post Script.

B-17  #44-6133 was a Douglas/Long Beach B-17G-45-DL Flying Fortress delivered to Tulsa airbase, Oklahoma, May 10th, 1944. It was transferred to Hunter airbase, Savannah, Georgia, on May 19th, 1944, and then onto Dow Field on May 29th, 1944. She was assigned to the 525th BS, 379th BG as ‘FR-Y’at Kimbolton Jun 8th, 1944. The crew of #44-6133 were:

Pilot: Second Lieutenant Armand Ramacitti
Co-pilot: Second Lieutenant William ‘Bill’ Hager
Navigator: First Lieutenant Donald ‘Don’ Watson
Flight engineer/top turret gunner: Staff Sergeant Cecil Tognazzini
Radio Operator: Sergeant Richard ‘Dick’ Ritter
Ball turret gunner: Staff Sergeant John Burke
Waist gunner: Corporal Paul Haynes
Tail gunner: Sergeant Warren Oaks (his second mission)
Bombardier: Second Lieutenant Theodore Chronopolis

Flight engineer/top turret gunner: Staff Sergeant Cecil Tognazzini (Photo Janet Penn, via http://www.findagrave.com)

#42-97942 was a Lockheed/Vega B-17G-40-VE Flying Fortress delivered to Denver on April 11th, 1944. She then went onto Kearney air base in Nebraska on May 4th, 1944, before transferring also to Dow Field May 23rd, 1944. She was then assigned to 525th BS,  379th BG at Kimbolton as ‘FR-K’. The crew of #42-97942 were:

Pilot: First Lieutenant Lloyd Burns (just 19 years of age)
Bombardier: Second Lieutenant Jack Gray
Flight engineer/top turret gunner: Technical Sergeant Leonard Gibbs
Radio Operator: Technical Sergeant Leroy Monk
Ball turret gunner: Staff Sergeant William ‘Bill’ Farmer
Waist gunner: Staff Sergeant Richard ‘Dick’ Andrews
Co-pilot: Second Lieutenant Fred Kauffman
Navigator: Flight Officer Edward Sadler
Tail gunner: Staff Sergeant Louis Schulte

RAF Glatton – a short lived airfield with a big history (Part 2)

Part 1 of RAF Glatton saw how the 457th were thrown into the deep end of the war. With a baptism of fire in the ‘Big Week’ campaign attacks against the German aircraft industry, they managed to survive with few casualties, but learned a great deal about the air war over Germany. In Part 2, we see the 457th in yet more high prestige raids and how they played a further part in the attacks on German industry. We also see unusual visitors and ‘oddities’ appear in the skies over Glatton.

Following the February campaign, the 457th would go on to drop both leaflets and bombs on coastal targets and more prestige targets including Wilhelmshaven on March 3rd 1944, and Berlin on March 6th. On this mission, two further aircraft were lost, not by being shot down by flak or enemy fighters, but because one was rammed by a Luftwaffe Me-410 fighter causing it to strike a second B-17 of the same group in the lower section.

Mission 8 for the 457th would take the group consisting of eighteen aircraft to the V.K.F. ball-bearing works in Erkner on the outskirts of Berlin. The factory, a subsidiary of the Swedish S.K.F. ball-bearing company, produced many of the ball-bearings required for the German war machine. B-17G #42-31595 ‘Flying Jenny‘ was struck by the fighter causing it to fall into the lower section of the formation B-17G #42-31627. Only the tail gunner of 627 survived, the remainder being ‘killed in action’*3.

During this period, losses remained remarkably low for the group, possibly due to the many targets they bombed being secondary, or targets of opportunity, a decision forced on the group primarily by bad weather over the primary target area.

March 1944 saw a remarkable and unique visitor to Glatton, one that not only attracted many military visitors to the airfield, but one that lightened the atmosphere amongst the men. A plan had earlier been formed in the United States to send B-29 ‘Superfortresses’ to China in a bid to support the Chinese and to allow the bombing of Japan from Chinese bases. In early 1944 this plan became reality but reliability problems had dogged the B-29’s engines and so major modifications had to be carried before the long flight could begin.

There was a fear that the Germans might attack the aircraft as they were ferried across the Mediterranean, and so a devious plan was set in motion to fool the Germans into thinking that B-29s were to be based in England, ready to be used against German targets. The first part of this rouse was in early March 1944, when YB-29 #41-36963 ‘Hobo Queen‘ took off from Salina Airbase in Kansas taking initially the southern route then deviating to the north and heading to Newfoundland. The B-29, piloted by Colonel Frank Cook, then flew across to the UK landing at RAF Glatton. The aircraft remained at Glatton for a short period before visiting both St Mawgan and Bassingbourn, before its final departure to India in April that year. The rouse had been a success. The B-29 certainly was a draw to the crews, its enormous size dwarfing anything hat had been seen at Glatton before, it was truly a remarkable aircraft, the likes of which had never been seen over the Huntingdon countryside previously.

Crews and ground staff swarm around B-29 #41-36963 at Glatton airfield 11th March 1944*4.

On April 22nd 1944, the 457th took part in the famous Mission 311, the mission in which US forces lost more aircraft to enemy intruders than at any other time in the war. On this mission, Hamm – the largest marshalling yard in Germany – was the target. The 457th along with the 401st BG and the 351st BG of the 94th Combat Wing, found themselves arriving last over the target, by which time it was covered in smoke from both previous bombing and German defensive smoke pots. Finding a break in the cloud the 457th dropped their bombs onto the target achieving ‘good’ results. However, by the time the Group were approaching home, it was dark and a group of Luftwaffe fighters had managed to hide themselves within the formations mingling with the bomber stream. By the time their presence was known, it was too late, and a number of aircraft, mainly B-24s, were attacked and either shot down or badly damaged. The 457th were once again lucky, only one aircraft, #42-106985 ‘La Legende‘, was severely damaged, but not to the point that it couldn’t crash-land back at Glatton. Significantly, on-board this aircraft was the station commander Lt. Col. James R. Luper.

B-17G #42-106985 after crash landing at Glatton April 22nd 1944. On board the aircraft was the station Commander Lt. Col James Luper. *5

It was Lt. Col. Luper who had had the honour of both collecting and naming the 1000th Douglas Long Beach built B-17, (#42-38113), ‘Rene III‘, named so after his wife. Initially called ‘Pistol Packing Mama‘ by the very people who built the aircraft, she was flown from the United States to Glatton by Lt. Col. Luper and his crew.

Lt. Col. Luper with ‘Rene III’ the 1000th Douglas built B17 (IWM)

Over the next year, ‘Rene III‘ would complete fifty-three missions, many over Germany including: Augsburg, Schweinfurt, Ludwigshafen, Leipzig, Munich, Cologne and Bremen. On her final mission, March 21st, 1945 to Hopsten, she was piloted by Lt. Craig P. Greason (s/n: 0-825840) of the 749th BS.

As the 749th BS aircraft approached the target, ‘Rene III‘ took a direct hit in the wing, close to the No. 4 engine, which caused a fuel leak and subsequent fire. The aircraft then dropped out of formation – one of the worst things that could happen to a stricken bomber. Official records suggest that the B-17 then went on to bomb the target after the fire appeared to extinguish itself. However, the crew were known to have all bailed out safely, after which all the aircrew (apart from Aircraft Engineer Sgt. William Wagner, who was caught and became a POW) managed to evade capture.

The station commander, Lt. Col. Luper, who was not aboard that day, continued to fly with his crew, eventually being lost on 7th October 1944 whilst flying in B-17 #44-8046 on a mission to Politz. Lt. Col. Luper survived a Flak strike on the aircraft and along with 4 other crewmen, was captured and taken prisoner by the Germans. The other six members who were not captured were sadly killed in the attack*6.

Glatton Runway

The main runway now serves light aircraft where B-17s once roared.

The salvage and rescue of damaged aircraft went a long way to supporting the work of the allied Air Forces in Europe. The need to keep aircraft flying meant stripping bits of damaged or scrapped aircraft and reusing them to repair less damaged examples. At Glatton, this went one step further.

B-17 #42-38064 was made into a composite aircraft with an olive drab front end and an aluminium rear; the two fuselage halves being joined at the wing root. The aircraft was named ‘Arf ‘n’ Arf‘, after a popular pub drink at the time made up of half a bitter and half a mild.

The rear of the aircraft came from B-17 #42-32084 ‘Li’l Satan‘  which lost an engine on landing at Glatton after receiving battle damage over Bremen in June 1944, the tail section being salvaged and added to #42-38064.

B-17 ‘Arf ‘n’ Arf’ a composite aircraft operating with the 457th BG at Glatton. (IWM UPL 28214)

Arf ‘n’ Arf‘ went on to complete several missions, its fate being sealed on November 8th 1944, in a heavy dousing of irony when it collided over the channel with B-17 #44-8418, ‘Bad Time Inc II’. In the collision, in which all the crewmen of ‘Arf ‘n’ Arf‘ were killed, the propellers of 8418 sliced through the fuselage of ‘Arf ‘n’ Arf‘ cutting the aircraft in two. 8418 went on to land ‘safely’ the crew being uninjured.

With the end of the year in sight, many were looking forward to the New Year celebrations and a renewed hope for peace. But New Years day 1945, would  be a notable day in the European Air War for other reasons. Not only for the appalling bad weather that had dogged the whole theatre of operations for the entire winter, but also for the fact that the Eighth Air Force Bomb Divisions were re-designated as ‘Air Divisions’. It was also a day where the Luftwaffe launched a series of attacks against allied airfields in the low countries causing widespread damage to aircraft and airfields.

The turn of 1944/5 would be a terrible time for bad weather. Mission either being cancelled at the last minute or flown in appalling conditions. As the end of the war draws ever closer the wind-down begins and the thought of going home becomes ever increasingly stronger. The end of the war also signifies the end of Glatton as a military base, but even after it is all but removed, its legacy lives on. 

The full account can be found at Trail 6 – American Ghosts.

RAF Glatton – a short lived airfield with a big history (Part 1 – The beginning)

In Trail 6 we visit six former World War Two airfields, each one being a major  base used by American forces during the 1940s. One of these was a late opener, and housed a brand new Bomb Group fresh out of training, who were thrust into the war during the combined ‘Big Week‘ campaign against the German aircraft industry in February 1944. It is this airfield that we visit first. Located just off the main A1 road, it remains an active airfield today, although the roar of the Wright Cyclone engines have been replaced by much smaller and more sedate single engined aircraft. We start off at RAF Glatton, otherwise known as Station 130.

RAF Glatton (Conington) Station 130.

Glatton peri track

Glatton’s unused runways and perimeter tracks are gradually being taken over.

Built by the 809th Engineer Battalion (Aviation) of the U.S. Army in the last months of 1942, Glatton was unique in that it was constructed around a farm that remained in situ throughout the war. The owner moved out as the airfield was built with the site returning to agricultural use after the Americans left. Built as a Class A airfield, it had the standard 3 runways; one of 2,000 yards and two of 1,400 yards, whose surface construction was of tarmac and wood chip. The apex of the ‘A’ pointed easterly with the main runway running west to east. To the north-west of the site lay the bomb store,  a traditional site consisting of Pyrotechnic stores (x4), incendiary stores (x10), small bomb container stores, fuzing points and component stores amongst others.

Around the perimeter track were forty-three spectacle and six frying pan style hardstands for aircraft dispersal. Unusually, the perimeter track split to the west side of the airfield, which meant that aircraft movement encircled both the technical area and main administration site. It is here, to the west of the main airfield site, that the majority of the aircraft dispersal pans were found.  The other section of this track wound round the front of this area allowing for uninterrupted views across the main airfield and its runways.

Glatton was also constructed with two type T2 hangars, both built to the 1941 design drawing No: 3653/41, with one being located to the eastern side, and the other to the western side, in the main technical area of the airfield.

To the northern side of the airfield lies the small village of Holme, and to the south the hamlet of Conington. The airfield’s name however, Glatton, came from yet another village some 4 miles away to the west; the reason ‘Glatton’ was used and not ‘Conington’ being due to the very similar RAF Coningsby not far away in Lincolnshire.

It was to the south-west of the airfield that the dispersed accommodation sites were located. Site 2, a communal site, included a barbers and shoemakers shop; Site 3, the mess, included a dining room and cooking facilities for 1,200 people; Site 4, a second mess site; Sites 5 and 6 (RAF sites) airmen’s barracks and sergeants’ quarters; Sites 7, 8 and 9 were Officers’ quarters with associated drying rooms and ablutions; Site 10 another sergeants’ site; Sites 11 and 12 were the WAAFs’ site with a hairdressers, small sick quarters, recreation room and officers’ quarters; Site 13 the main sick quarters and lastly Site 14, the sewage disposal site. The majority of the huts found on the site were Nissen, built to standard 1941 / 42 designs. All in all, the airfield could accommodate around 3,000 men and women of mixed rank.

These accommodation huts, with their cement floors and iron roofs, were cold and lacking any comforts at all, double bunks were provided for the enlisted men with slightly more space for Officers, but they all had minimal locker room or private space. Here, like many air bases in wartime Britain, new crews were largely ignored, friendships were not forged for fear of losing them on the next mission. As a result, many on these bases did not know other crews outside of their own huts, instead choosing to spend every minute with their own crew – the heartache of losing good friends being too painful to bear on a daily basis.

Used primarily by the US Eighth Air Force, Glatton was opened in 1943 and designated Station 130, home to the 457th Bomb Group, U.S. Eighth Air Force.

Composed of the: 748th, 749th, 750th, and 751st Bomb Squadrons, it was assigned to the 94th Combat Bombardment Wing (joining both the 351st and 401st BG) of the 1st Bombardment Division. Its aircraft, B-17G ‘Flying Fortresses’, flew throughout hostilities with the tail code a black ‘U’ on a white triangle, reversed in an Air Force restructuring during the winter of 1944/45 with a blue diagonal added to the fin.

The 457th’s journey to war began on May 19th, 1943 (the same time as the Trident Conference which led to a re-organisation of the USAAF in Europe), with activation that summer at Geiger Field, Washington. Being formed so late in the war, the 457th would be a short-lived group, but they were none-the-less still involved in some of the most ferocious air battles of the Second World War.

After training at Rapid City Airfield in South Dakota, they moved to Ephrata Army Air Base, one of the United States’s largest training bases, then onto Wendover Field in Utah before their final departure to the United Kingdom and Glatton airbase.

Maintenance crews work on fighters stationed at the Ephrata airport in 1944*1

The 457th entry to the war would be a real baptism of fire. On Monday 21st February 1944, the combined forces of the USAAF and the RAF were involved in the ‘Big Week‘ campaign. Officially known as Operation ‘Argument‘, it was designed to smash the German aircraft industry in one fell swoop. Postponed repeatedly from early January due to bad weather, it finally began on the night of February 19th 1944, with US air forces flying their first operations on the 20th.

Two days into ‘Big Week‘ the 457th were dispatched along with 335 other B-17s of the 1st Bomb Division (BD) to attack Gutersloh, Lippstadt and Weri airfields, but having no pathfinder aircraft and in poor weather, they had to turn to targets of opportunity. With the 2nd and 3rd BDs also in operation that day, some 860 heavy American bombers filled the skies over Germany.

With poor results and difficulty in forming up, this initial mission was further marred by the group’s first loss; that of B-17G #42-31596 piloted  Lt. Llewellyn G. Bredeson, of the 750th BS. Flying their first mission, and in the unenviable position of ‘tail-end-Charlie’, they were singled out for a prolonged and devastating attack. Two engines were hit and substantial damaged was caused to the aircraft, including its oxygen system, in attacks which left the tail gunner seriously injured. Lt. Bredeson gave the order to bale out, an order that included the injured tail gunner. The other crewmen, tethered him to the aircraft by his static line, and then pushed him out so that his parachute would release automatically. After the stricken bomber was vacated, it crashed four miles west of Quackenbruck in northern Germany, one of the gunners, Sgt William H. Schenkel, dying from his injuries whilst the remainder of the crew were captured becoming prisoners of war.

The next day (22nd) the 457th  were back in action, with more ‘Big Week‘ attacks. This time there were no losses for the group, a reassuring mission that was followed by a day’s break from flying. On the 24th, they joined with other 1st Bomb Division groups attacking Schweinfurt, a target that struck fear into the hearts of American airmen. This mission, Mission 3 for the 457th and Mission 233 for the USAAF, would be the return to the ball bearing plants, a product that without which, the German war machine would literally grind to a halt.

In the original attack on 17th  August 1943, a combined offensive against Schweinfurt and Regensburg saw a 19% loss rate, some sixty bombers from 315 that were sent out. It was no wonder the target’s name struck fear into the hearts of the new group.

The 1st BD were the only group sent to Schweinfurt that day. The 3rd and 2nd attacking targets elsewhere in Germany. The 457th sent eighteen aircraft, part of a force of 265 B-17s. As well as dropping 401 Tonnes of high explosive bombs and 172 Tonnes of incendiary bombs, they also dropped just short of 4 million propaganda leaflets.

The defensive ring around the city had not weakened, if anything it had been strengthened since its previous attacks, flak was heavy and accurate and fighters were abundant. Some 110 US airmen were classed as ‘Missing in Action’ that day, but luckily for the 457th, only one aircraft was lost. Douglas-Long Beach built B-17G #42-38060 of the 750th BS, was hit by flak, the #1 and #2 engines were put out of action, and #3 and #4 began over revving – the crew unable to control them.

Glatton (Conington) second runway markings

Glatton’s Second Runway.

With the navigator, 2nd Lt. Daren McIntyre badly wounded and the Right Waist Gunner Sgt. Italo Stella killed when flak pierced his flak jacket; the pilot, 2nd Lt. Max Morrow decided the best option was to crash land the aircraft and hope that in doing so, they would all survive. After carrying out a wheels-up belly landing near to Giessen in Germany, the aircraft was surrounded by locals, who removed the dead and wounded from the aircraft wreckage. Fearing for their lives, the immediate future looked bleak for the crew. Eventually German officials intervened, and the survivors were taken to POW camps where they stayed for the remainder of the war. 2nd Lt. McIntyre sadly later died, succumbing to his severe wounds.*2

The 457th’s final mission for ‘Big Week‘ occurred on the 25th, a mission to attack the Messerschmitt factory in Augsberg, Bavaria. On this day they lost two more aircraft: #42-97457 (six killed the remainder POWs)  and #42-31517 (Seven killed the remainder either evading capture or taken as POWs). Of the twenty-four aircraft that took part in this mission, all but one suffered battle damage to a various degree. The first week had not been disastrous, but it had nonetheless, been a very difficult week for the men of the 457th.

In Part 2 we see how the 457th went on, continuing attacks against the German heartland. We see unusual visitors to the airfield and some ‘oddities’ that graced the Skies over Glatton. 

The full account can be found at Trail 6 – American Ghosts.

A desperate plea for help!

I have recently been contacted by Mike Potter, the former Museum Director of Jerry Yagen’s Warbird collection / museum in Virginia. A self confessed ‘aviation nut’, Mike is struggling to find details of the inner workings of a standard World War II Watch Office built to design 518/40.
For those who may not know, or remember, the Military Aviation Museum is the team that dismantled the former RAF Goxhill Watch Office in North Lincolnshire (post June 2017) in 2017 and had it shipped back to the United States where it has been painstakingly rebuilt brick by brick to its former glory. The refurbishment is all but complete and will be opening to the public very shortly. However, Mike and his team of dedicated volunteers, are trying to find out about the various posters, boards and instruments located within the office as specific information is quite rare.

Mike has been using a photo taken at RAF Snaith as a ‘model’ and specific questions refer to the ‘SANDRA‘ poster? flares or signal rockets? and Landing Control Board on the left side of the picture. Mike would like further details on the operation of these and pictures or originals that they could obtain for their own watch office.

Royal Air Force Bomber Command, 1942-1945. CH18743.jpg
By Clark N S (Fg Off), Royal Air Force official photographer – (
IWM – CH18743)

The team have been on contact with numerous organisations here in the UK who have all supplied various drawings, pictures and advice, but as yet these specific details remain a little ‘foggy’. If anyone knows of precise information about these items or any others within the office, please get in contact with Mike (Mhpotterone@gmail.com) or myself and I will pass the information on.

Specifically, they would like to find a digital copy or photo of the poster titled “Searchlight Assistance To Lost Aircraft”.  They are also looking to learn what kind of signal flares or rockets are below the poster, and finally specifically what is on the Landing Control Board, and how the various markers were used.  If anyone has a clearer photograph or illustration of this kind of Board, it would be quite helpful.

Ideally someone who worked in the/a Watch Office itself would be ideal, however, I appreciate due to the length of time that has passed, this may not sadly be possible any longer.

Any help anyone can offer would be most gratefully appreciated by both Mike and his team.

Many thanks, Andy

A Wing and a Prayer – B-17 Memorial update.

The planned memorial for the crew of B-17 #44-6133 which collided with another B-17 ‘Heavenly Body II’ over Allhallows in Kent, has taken a major step forward recently.

In the crash all but one of the crewmen were killed and Mitch Peeke has been organising the erection of a memorial to commemorate the tragic accident.

With a large part of the funding having been raised, materials donated and a considerable number of leaflets distributed, there has been great interest shown from not only the UK but also from the United States.

Both Mitch and I have been in contact with Noel Tognazzini, the nephew of S/Sgt. Cecil Tognazzini, Flight Engineer/Top Turret Gunner on the B17 #44-6133.

Noel has made arrangements for not only himself, but also the daughter of 2nd Lt. Theodore Chronopolis, (Bombardier), Jeanne Crons Campbell, the only child of the sole survivor of #44-6133, to attend both the 75th anniversary of the crash on June 19 and the Allhallows event which Mitch has organised for June 22nd.

With a collection of Second World War vehicles, a live band and stalls from aviation related organisations, it is going to be a superb day with a great deal of supporters in attendance. With other events occurring locally at the same time, this will be a remarkable way to commemorate the loss of these young men who were so tragically taken from us in 1944.

Following the collision between the two aircraft, #44-6133 fell into the mud flats at Allhallows, from where most of the bodies were recovered; some at the time, some a while later, and who are now interred in the American Cemetery at Madingley, Cambridge. The body of Gunner Louis Schulte from #44-6133 was sent home and rests in a cemetery in St. Louis. Only two crewmen are still unaccounted for: Fred Kauffman, Co-pilot of Heavenly Body II, the second B-17, and Cecil Tognazzini from #44-6133, both of whom are listed on the tablets of the missing at Madingley. Their last resting places are very probably in the soft Thames mud that the aircraft crashed in.

Sole survivor Theodore Chronopolis, landed safely by parachute. He was fished out of the water by a passing  boat. The eight men of #44-6133’s crew who died that day were: Pilot 2nd Lt. Armand Ramacitti, Co-pilot 2nd Lt. William Hager, Navigator 2nd Lt. Donald Watson, Gunner S/Sgt. Richard Ritter, Gunner S/Sgt. Cecil Tognazzini, Gunner S/Sgt. John  Burke, Gunner Sgt. Warren Oaks and Gunner Cpl. Paul Haynes.

Mitch has set up a ‘gofundme’ fundraising account, with a target of £1000 to help secure the memorial for those young men who lost their lives that tragic day. Additional funds and collections on the day will go towards the up keep of Britain’s only flying B-17 – ‘Sally B’ (http://www.sallyb.org.uk/). 

For further information or if you would like to have a stall promoting your group, please contact Mitch direct at: madmitch.peeke978@gmail.com or leave a comment here and I’ll make sure he gets it.

Find the fund-raising account at: https://www.gofundme.com/ww2-aircrew-memorial 

The full story of the crash can be found using the link: ‘A Long way from Home’.

B-17 Memorial flyer Allhallows, Kent.

RAF Little Walden (Station 165)

Sometimes, we come across quite unexpectedly, something of great interest. Whilst on my travels recently, passing through the southern regions of Cambridge into Essex, I came upon the former station RAF Little Walden. Being an unplanned visit, I was rather short in prior knowledge and preparation, no maps, aerial photographs, or other documents that I normally seek out before venturing off into the wilderness. So I was quite unprepared when I stumbled across the Watch Office from former station RAF Little Walden, otherwise known as Station 165 of the USAAF.

RAF Little Walden (Hadstock) – (Station 165)

Little Walden lies slightly closer to the village of Hadstock than it does Little Walden, and was originally called Hadstock. When construction began in 1942, it was allocated to the Eighth Air Force as a Class A bomber airfield. However, due to the bad winter of 1942/43 work ceased temporarily, being held up until well into the summer of 1943. At this point, Hadstock became known as Little Walden, a name change that coincided with the formation of the Ninth Air Force in Europe, an organisation whose primary role was the support of ground troops in the European theatre. With its headquarters at Sunninghill Park1 in Ascot, it would operate both transport and bomber units, taking many of these units (and their airfields) from the already established Eighth Air Force. Little Walden was one such airfield passing from the Eighth to the Ninth to fulfil this new role.

Although a Class A airfield, Little Walden’s main runway was slightly shorter than those of its counterparts, 1,900 yards as opposed to 2,000 yards, but the two auxiliary runways were both the standard 1,400 yards in length. A concrete and wood chip construction gave these runways good strength, it also had hardened perimeter tracks and fifty hardstands of the spectacle type. Grouped mainly in blocks of five, they were located around the perimeter track with a further block of eighteen to the north-west of the site. In the development process a public road the B1052, was closed as it passed directly though the centre of the proposed site.

Little Walden Watch Office

Little Walden’s Watch Office is now a private residential property.

A large bomb store lay to the west of the airfield, surprisingly close to the majority of the hardstands, any major accidental discharge being likely to cause substantial damage to parked aircraft. There were four areas within the bomb store, each holding 200 tons of bombs and tail units, further stores held pyrotechnics, incendiaries, ‘small’ bombs, grenades and small arms ammunition. Most of these were secured by earth banks with fusing points (both ultra-heavy and heavy-light) being held in temporary brick buildings.

To the eastern side of the airfield lay the technical area, with one of the type T2 hangars (the second being located to the north), a fire tender shelter, and a watch office designed to drawing 12779/41 – the standard airfield design of 1942/43. Behind this, lay the main technical area, with its usual range of dingy stores, MT (Motor Transport) sheds, parachute stores and a wide range of ancillary buildings.

Accommodation for staff was, as usual by now, dispersed over eleven sites, a sick quarters, communal site and WAAF site accounting for three of them. A further sewage works made the twelfth site. All-in-all accommodation was provided for just short of 3,000 men and women of mixed rank.

On March 6th, 1944 the airfield officially opened, the day before its first residents arrived. The 409th BG were a new Group, only constituted on June 1st, the previous year (1943). They trained using Douglas A-20 Havocs (known in British service as the Boston) a twin engines light bomber capable of carrying up to 4,000lb of bombs.

The 409th BG formed at Will Rogers Field (Oklahoma) and transitioned through Woodward and DeRidder bases before arriving in the UK. Between March and September they operated out of Little Walden, bombing V-weapons sites and airfields in France in a strategic role. Initially they performed in the low-level role, but soon moved to higher altitudes, performing their first mission on April 13th 1944.

In the short period of residency at Little Walden, the 409th would lose a number of aircraft, one of the first being that of #43-9899 of the 642nd BS, which was written off in a landing accident on April 22nd 1944. Three days later a second aircraft, #43-9691, would also crash-land at Little Walden being damaged in the process.

May would also prove to be a difficult month for the 409th, with one aircraft ‘lost’ on the 9th, a further crash landing on the 11th, another lost on the 22nd and two further aircraft lost (classified as MIA) on the 27th. It was on this mission that a further Havoc would collide with a low flying Mustang resulting in several tragic deaths.

Havoc #43-10130 of the 643rd BS, piloted by Captain Roger D. Dunbar took off from Little Walden heading south-east, when it collided with P-51B #42-106907 of the 503rd FS, 339th FG, piloted by 2nd Lt. Robert L. Dickens. The Mustang, on a training flight, disintegrated killing the pilot, whilst the Havoc crashed into the farmland below. In the ensuing fire, a local farmer’s widow and trained nurse, Betty Everitt ran to the scene and managed to pull one of the airmen out of the aircraft. When returning to retrieve another crewman, one of the bombs on board the aircraft exploded killing her, her small dog, a helping Staff Sgt. and those left inside the aircraft. As a thank you to Betty, the US airmen, from the base, raised almost £3,000 to provide an education for her four-year old orphaned son, Tony2. This was not a one-off either, a fund set up by Stars and Stripes and the British Red Cross, aimed to raise funds for children who had suffered the loss of one or both parents. The amounts raised went a long way to getting these children an education that they would not otherwise have had.

Early June would see another such tragedy, when three more Havocs would collide. Havocs A-20G #43-9703 and #43-9946, both of the 641st BS, would crash whilst the third aircraft managed to land at the airfield. #43-9703 was piloted by Joseph R. Armistead, whilst #43-9946 was piloted by Thomas A. Beckett. A young girl, Marjorie Pask, ran to help, pulling two airmen out of the wreckage then waiting with them until help arrived. Five airmen including the pilots and an air gunner, Staff Sergeant Albert H Holiday, were all killed. It was not until later that Marjorie realised that there were many bombs scattered around the site and how much danger she had been in 3.

Staff Sgt. Albert H Holiday, killed June 11th 1944 in a collision between two Havocs of the 409th BG. (IWM-UPL 21530)

With two further loses and a forced landing in June, it was be a difficult month for the 409th. The late summer months of July and August would be lighter but by no means a clean sheet. In September 1944, on the 18th, the 409th were moved out of Little Walden and posted to a forward Landing Ground A-48 at Bretigny, where they would continue to suffer from landing accidents, Flak and fighters.

Next at Little Walden came the Mustangs of the 361st FG, in a move that saw possession of Little Walden pass back into the hands of the Eighth Air Force. Station 165 was now back with its original owners.

The 361st FG were the last of the P-47 Groups to arrive in the UK. Initially based at Bottisham, they converted to the P-51 in the weeks leading up to D-day. Using the Thunderbolts they earned a reputation as a strong and determined ground attack unit, hitting rail yards and transportation links across France.

A short break whilst transferring from Bottisham to Little Walden gave a somewhat minor break for the 361st. But, following changes to the Eighth’s overall structure, it was soon back to normal and more attacks over occupied France. In October, Lt. Urban Drew shot down two Me 262s who were in the process of taking off from their airfield at Achmer. What was more remarkable about the attack was that Lt. Drew had only arrived in the U.K. a few days earlier, had been grounded for a Victory Roll and then went on to become an Ace shooting down six enemy aircraft and the first pair of 262s! He was awarded the Air Force Cross, being denied the Distinguished Flying Cross until after the war when records from both the Luftwaffe and US Air Force were able to confirm his dramatic claims.

The Christmas and winter of 1944-45 was notoriously bad, very cold temperatures, fog, frost and ice played havoc with operations. The Battle of the Bulge was raging and the allies were finding it all but impossible to provide assistance from the air. Many Bomb Groups suffered terrible tragedies as collisions and accident numbers increased in the poorer weather. The Ninth, who themselves had primary roles in ground support were finding it particularly difficult. To help, a selection of men and machines from the 361st (and 352nd from Bodney) were transported to France and the airfields at St. Dizier (Y-64) and Asch (Y-29) where they were seconded into the Ninth Air Force.  The main force back at Little Walden continued to support bomber missions whenever they could, a difficult job in often appalling conditions.

Duxford American Airshow May 2016

‘Ferocious Frankie’ #44-13704 (374th FS, 361st FG). The original crashed during a wheels up belly landing at RAF Little Walden, on November 9th, 1944. (This aircraft was flying at the Duxford American Airshow May 2016).

Aug 2015 317a

‘Ferocious Frankie’ (named after the wife of Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace E. Hopkins) seen at the Eastbourne Air Display August 2015.

By the end of January the seconding to the Ninth came to an end and the entire Group moved across to Belgium and Chievres, a former Belgian airfield captured and used by Luftwaffe bombers during the earlier years of the war. The 361st would remain there until April 1945 whereupon they returned back to Little Walden. During their absence Little Walden was made good use of. Being a ‘bomber airfield’ by design, its runways and hardstands were put to good use by Debach’s 493rd BG and their B-17 ‘Flying Fortresses’ whilst their own airfield was repaired and strengthened.

Spending only a month at Little Walden, the Air Echelons of the 493rd BG would depart in the April as the 361st FG returned. On the 20th, the 361st would fly their last operational mission, a flight that would close the record books culminating in a total of 441 missions. As the war ended and personnel were sent home, crews and aircraft of the 361st were dispersed to depots around the U.K., those that were left were sent home via the Queen Mary from Southampton arriving in New York in early November 1945. Within hours the group was disbanded and the men scattered to the four winds.

Between early September and early October 1945, the 56th FG ‘The Wolfpack’ were brought to Little Walden. The aircraft were also dispatched to depots around the country whilst personnel were brought to Little Walden for onward transportation to the United States. By mid October they too had gone.

Little Walden then began the wind down, transferring back to RAF ownership in early 1946. For the next twelve years or so, it was used to store surplus military equipment before they were sold off. After that, the site was returned to agriculture, the majority of the buildings pulled down and the runways dug up for road building hardcore.

The control tower stood for many years derelict and forlorn, until being purchased by an architect in 1982, eventually being turned into a private residence, the state it exists in today. The closed road has since been restored, utilising part of the NE-SW runway. Other parts that remain being a public footpath, but all a fraction of their former selves and no more than a tractor’s width wide.

What’s left of the technical area is a small industrial unit, remaining buildings being used for storage or small industrial companies. An access road from the B1052 passes the site an on to private residencies.

Little else survives of Little Walden. Memorial plaques are believed to be mounted on the side of the watch office, although I could not see these when I visited, and the village memorial mentions those who were stationed at the airfield.

The serenity of Little Walden does nothing to reflect the goings on here over 70 years ago. The aircraft are gone, the bird song replacing the sound of engines, and the busy runways now a small road. For those who were lost here, the watch office stands as  a memorial to their memory and the dedication shown by the many young men and women of the USAAF.

Sources and further reading.

1 Sunninghill Park was originally part of Windsor Forest and dates back to the 1600s and King Charles 1. Its ownership changed hands several times, and in the early 1800s during the Georgian period,  a large house was built upon it. The Ninth Air Force made it their headquarters between  November 1943 and September 1944, after which, in 1945, it was sold to the Crown Estate as a future home for Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. However, before their marriage, the house burned down and the site remained unoccupied until the 1980s when a new property was designed and constructed for the Duke and Duchess of York. However, it was never occupied, the house fell into a very poor state of disrepair and was bought for £15m by an overseas investor. The site continued to decay and by 2014 was ordered for demolition.

2The Troy Record Newspaper Archives, Page 20, June 5th 1944 accessed 10/3/19.

3The full story can be read in ‘Balsham, A Village Story 1617-2017‘.

Little Walden is a new addition to Trail 46

1st  Lieutenant John E. Morse – RAF Kimbolton

Kimbolton station was home to the four Squadrons of the 379th BG, Eighth Air Force flying B-17 ‘Flying Fortresses’, identifiable by a triangle and large ‘K’ on the fin.

The 379th BG took part in many of the war’s greatest air battles carrying out numerous bombing missions over occupied Europe. They also flew, unprotected, into the heartland of Germany, attacking prestige industrial targets, losing many aircraft and aircrew in the process.

As with many squadrons of both the USAAF and RAF, heroic acts of bravery and self-sacrifice were common place, crews putting their own lives in jeopardy to save those of their fellow crewmen and colleagues. Many did not return as a result. This is the story of one such crew, told by Mitch Peeke.

I was recently contacted by a lady via the GoFundMe page linked to the memorial I am raising here at Allhallows, to 2nd Lieutenant Armand Ramacitti and the crew of B-17 #44-6133. The lady’s name is Mary Barton and her Dad was a pilot in the 524th Squadron, 379th Bombardment Group, who were also based at Kimbolton.

Mary Barton’s Dad was 1st  Lieutenant John E Morse and his B-17 was  #42-5828  “The Sweater Girl“.

Crew photo

The John Morse Crew: (not the final crew of ‘The Sweater Girl’ – see below) Standing left to right : John F. Humphreys (top-turret gunner, fatally injured , mission 54, Dec. 31, 1943) Charles S. Sechrist S/Sgt – Eng/TTG; Homer L. Neill S/Sgt – BTG; Charles E. Cox S/Sgt – RWG; Andrew L. Allen S/Sgt – LWG; Willard H. Clothier T/Sgt RO;  Kneeling left to right: John E. Morse 1st Lt – Pilot; Robert J.Philips FO – CP; Robert Y. Daniels 2nd Lt – Bom; Leonard R Lovelace 2nd Lt – Nav;  Photo by kind permission of Mary Barton

John Morse’s crew were the second crew assigned to that ship, taking over when the first crew completed their tour. She had already been named “The Sweater Girl” by her first crew. As she’d seen her previous crew safely through their tour, John and his crew kept the name. Sadly, the run of luck was not set to continue. On John’s third mission, their Top turret gunner, John Humphreys was fatally wounded when a German fighter attacked the aircraft.

John’s eighth mission was on February 22nd 1944 during “Big Week.” The target was an aircraft factory at Halberstadt. However, near Koln, “Sweater Girl” was seen to take a devastating hit from Flak in the starboard wing. The aircraft dropped out of formation and went down in a spin. No parachutes were seen to emerge and “Sweater Girl” was presumed lost.

The exploding Flak shell had not only severely damaged the aircraft, but it had started a fire in the Cockpit and terribly wounded the Radio Operator, T/Sgt Willard Clothier. The shrapnel had practically severed Clothier’s thigh. The Tail Gunner, Sgt Edward Pate, had also been wounded and now had a large gaping hole in his ankle. However, John Morse was an exceptional pilot, he’d been a flying Instructor for two years previously and was just shy of thirty years old when he’d volunteered for combat duty. He was not about to give up on his ship or his crew. Somehow, John managed to regain control of the aircraft pulling it out of its potentially terminal fall.

The Cockpit fire having now been put out, John and his Co Pilot realised that “Sweater Girl” would never make it back to Kimbolton.  With two critically wounded crewmen aboard, John’s next decision was how best to get his crew and his aircraft safely down. There were really only two options: a traditional wheels-up crash landing, or letting the crew bail out.

By now, they were over the German town of Oberbruch, about six miles short of the Dutch border. It was crunch time. John saw a piece of open ground below, away from the houses, but it wasn’t big enough to accommodate a B-17 coming in wheels-up. Gently banking left, he began circling, giving the “Everybody out!” order to the crew. The Bombardier had already put a tourniquet on the Radio Operator’s thigh and a field dressing on the Tail gunner’s ankle. Both men were now strapped into their parachutes and put out of the aircraft. As the rest of the crew bailed out, John trimmed the stricken B-17 and lashed the control yoke with belts to hold “Sweater Girl” in the shallow spiral dive he’d started, then he too bailed out.

John’s piloting skills had saved his crew. Moreover, as “Sweater Girl” continued to circle, descending unmanned over that open ground, the people on the ground watching the drama unfold had plenty of warning that a crash was inevitable. Witnesses on the ground said that the plane had circled for nearly fifteen minutes before finally and literally flying itself into the ground behind the houses. There was no explosion and nobody was hurt.

B-17 'The Sweater Girl'

B-17 ‘The Sweater Girl’ #42-5828 after crashing at Oberbruch (by kind permission of Mary Barton)

The Tail Gunner, Sgt  Edward Pate, and the Radioman, T/Sgt Willard Clothier, were both repatriated some months later, after treatment in a POW Hospital, Clothier losing his leg. John Morse and the rest of “Sweater Girl”s crew spent the remainder of the war as POW’s. All later returned home.

In 2015, A civic-minded citizen of Oberbruch, Helmut Franken, created a monument to the event bearing the names of all nine crew members, near to the place where the B-17 crashed. He also sent Mary, John Morse’s daughter, the pictures of the wreck, which were taken the day after the crash. Oberbruch has never forgotten how John Morse’s actions that day not only saved the lives of his crew, but also spared the town from what certainly would have been a devastating plane crash.

A few years ago, Mary was fortunate enough not only to have been given a tour, with her sister, of Kimbolton as it is now, but also to have been able to take a flight in a B-17. She described it as an unforgettable experience and one that added to her understanding of her late Father. She wants others to be able to have that experience, which is why she is kindly supporting A WING AND A PRAYER. She wants to help keep Britain’s last remaining airworthy B-17 in the air, as a flying memorial to the 79,000 US and British airmen who gave their lives flying B-17’s during World War 2.

Thank you, Mary; for your support and for sharing your Dad’s remarkable story and the equally remarkable photographs.

Note:

My own thanks go to Mitch for writing the article and for gaining Mary’s permission to publish both it and her photos. I also thank Mary for taking the time to share her father’s story, it is truly a remarkable one.

Sweater Girl‘ was a B-17-F-VE ‘Flying Fortress’ delivered to Long Beach March 1st, 1943. She travelled to Sioux City, onto Kearney and then to Dow Field where she was assigned to the 524thBS/379thBG and Kimbolton. Her loss is detailed in MACR 2868.

The crew at the time of the crash were:

Sgt. Edward T Pate (TG) – repatriated
1st Lt. John E. Morse (P) – POW
F.O. Robert J. Philips (CP) – POW
2nd Lt. Leonard R. Lovelace (Nav) – POW
2nd Lt. Robert Y. Daniels (Bom) – POW
T. Sgt. Willard H. Clothier (RO/Gunner) – RTB
S/Sgt. Homer L. Neil (BTG) – POW
S/Sgt. Charles S. Sechrist (Eng/TTG) – POW
S/Sgt. Charles E. Cox (RWG) – POW
S/Sgt. Andrew L. Allen (LWG) – POW

Kimbolton airfield is part of Trail 6, little exists of it, the main buildings and runways being removed many years ago. Patches of concrete do still remain and part of it forms a kart track. A memorial and a Roll of Honour stand outside what was the airfield’s technical area.

This story appears alongside other remarkable memories under ‘Heroic Tales‘.

Philpott J.A. (GB1312948) (RCAF) (Part 1)

Some time ago I was given the chance to look through the flying logs of Jack Philpott (RCAF), books that record his daily activities through flying training to operational duties and eventual demobbing at the end of the war. I have been researching these events ever since and have a draft version of his early career. This is an ongoing project and I would like to hear from anyone with information or photos they are willing to share, of any of the stations or events mentioned in Jack’s history.

My sincerest thanks go to his wife Hazel, her son Ronnie and the family members that have contributed to the works, without them it would not have been possible.

P/O J. A. Philpott - Log Books

P/O J. A. Philpott - Log Books

P/O J. A. Philpott - Log Books

P/O J. A. Philpott - Log Books

Jack Philpott and Englishman who went to war for Canada.

On September 2nd 1941, almost two years to the day after Britain declared war on Germany, the flying career of Jack Philpott began. He learned to fly through the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP), a plan designed to bolster the Royal Air Force’s dwindling numbers by training aircrews in Canada ready for the war in Europe.

Jack Philpott went through a years training, qualifying as an Air Observer Navigator and Bomb Aimer before being posted to the Middle East and operations over the Mediterranean. He survived the war, returning to the UK where he married his sweetheart on October 18th 1949.

After leaving school Jack entered the building trade where he worked with his father. He decided to sign up and joined the ranks of the Royal Air Force being seconded to Canada to train as an aircrew member under the terms of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Whilst in Canada, Jack would undertake a range of flying duties, air navigation, bomb aiming and cross-country flying, qualifying in September 1942. Jack would not be chosen for Pilot training though, the reason being due to something being wrong with his eyesight under night flying conditions; particularly with landing judgement. So Jack would go on to train as aircrew, being a successful airman in the many courses he undertook.

As a trainee in Canada he was a non-combatant, and initially flew with civilian pilots before meeting his first military instructor.

On arrival in Canada on September 2nd 1941, Jack was stationed at No.1 Elementary Flying Training School (EFTS) Malton, Ontario in Canada. Here he joined course no. 37 and would begin flying training on both the bi-plane, the De Havilland Tiger Moth, and the ground based Link trainer. His first flight, which lasted 35 minutes, was a  familiarisation flight with ‘Mr. May’ as pilot and took place in aircraft #4377. Two further flights would take his total flying hours in a D.H. Moth to 2:15, flying in aircraft  #5116 and #4377.

After a two-day break, he would then fly four other D.H. Moths, #4216, #4390, #4399 and #4396, this time his pilots were Mr. Dagley, Mr. Hinch and Mr. Clark. These four sessions amounting to 3:15, took his total flying hours so far to 5:30.

Jack’s wife Hazel, who carried out war work as a civilian working with the RAF, noted that where she was they had the de Havilland Tiger Moth, and whilst they were very manoeuvrable, she recalls how they could easily go into a spin if not handled properly.

Again a short break led to further flying, carrying out different aerial manoeuvres with Mr. Hinch, Mr. Mongraw, Mr. Anten and his first military pilot Flying Officer Turner. The latter two flights being ‘progress checks’ after which Mr. Hinch signs Jack off with a total of 9:00 hours flying time. Interspersed with these sessions in the air, would be challenges in a Link trainer (#617) over seven days between 4th and 19th. Jack achieved grades here of B to A+, all completed over four hours in total during this time.

Jack’s initial training at Malton would end there, on September 19th 1941, seventeen days after his arrival.

10 Air Observer School

There then followed a two month break after which Jack transferred to No. 10 Air Observer School (AOS) Chatham, New Brunswick. Here, he would undertake a series of flying activities, some of which were with Mr. George Neal, who went on to be a Guinness Book of World Record Holder qualifying as the oldest active, licensed pilot.

The RCAF Station Chatham, opened in 1940 under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Here two schools were opened one of which was No. 10 Air Observer School on 21st July 1941. Jack would attend the School between 10th November 1941 and 16th February 1942.

His first flight would be on the 23rd in Anson ‘4’, with another civilian pilot Mr. Neal. A number of cross-country flights would see Jack as Navigator (1st and 2nd) until the 19th December when he undertook his first bombing flight. Using flash bombs, Jack would fly Anson ‘S’. A single photography flight using hand-held obliques, preceded further practice bombing flights in which both flash bombs and 11.5 lb bombs were dropped. It is thought these occurred on the Miramichi river range.

Miramichi River Range, New Brunswick.

Over the Miramichi River Range, New Brunswick.

January 1942 brought further cross-country flights again with Jack flying as 1st or 2nd Navigator, his initial night flying experience being on the 7th January 1942 with Mr. Roy as pilot in Anson ‘U’. Further cross-country flight and bombing practices followed with his first taste of unforeseen action being on the 22nd January 1942, when one of the engines of Anson ‘Y’ failed just after take off.

January ended with a total of 31:40 hours flying time, to which two days in February gave a total of 64:50 hours flying time at Chatham. By the end of the Air Observer’s Navigation Course Jack had achieved 85.5 % marks achieving an ‘exceptional’ status. Subjects included: Plotting, compasses and instruments, meteorology, bombing, reconnaissance, photography, signals, maps and charts and finally air work.

No 6 Bombing and Gunnery School, Mountain view

After moving to Mountain View in Ontario, Jack joined No. 6 Bombing and Gunnery School (B & G) Mountain View, Ontario, his course running between 16th February 1942 and 28th March 1942.

His first flight was recorded on 28th February in Fairy Battle #1986, flying with F/O Compton, his first experience with RCAF military personnel. This would be the first of two air-to-air camera gun exercises, which were followed on 2nd March by his first live air-to-ground gunnery action. A free gun beam test, he fired 200 rounds achieving 4 hits in a flight of 45 minutes.

Throughout the remainder of March he would undertake a mix of air-to-air; air-to-ground; low-level and high-level bombing duties, tasks which included night flights and flying with a number of different instructors.

By the end of his course his total day bombing time would amount to 15:05 hours with a further 5:20 hours at night. With a gunnery total of 10:40, Jack’s total flying time at No. 6 B & G was 31:05 hours. His marks for the gunnery course amounted to 83.5% and the bombing course slightly lower at 77.4% both achieving a pass. With this he was now Qualified as Air Observer Bomb Aimer.

2 Advanced Navigation School, Pennfield Ridge

After completing this course he moved on to navigation, joining No. 2 Advanced Navigation School, Pennfield Ridge, New Brunswick, on 30th March 1942. Jack would be on the Air Observers Advanced Navigation course and would fly a large number of air training flights all in Avro Ansons between 5th April and 24th April 1942. During this course, and before taking to the air, Jack would learn to use the Mk.IX Sextant, carrying out a substantial number of measurements during March and early April. It would be this sextant that he would then operate in his many initial flights, all in Anson #6888. Ground sessions would be interspersed with air sessions, later flying in Ansons #6717, #6399 and #6275. Using the stars, moon and sun, Jack would calculate their location all using the Mk.IX. This was a sextant put into service in 1938, and was designed by P. F. Everitt of Henry Hughes and Son.

During April he would amass 17:35 hours flying time during the day and 16:25 at night. This took his total flying time to 117 hours. At the end of the course, his log book states ‘Passed’, and this would set him off on his way to England.

England.

Jack’s arrival in England would be on 22nd May, after which there would be a period of non-flying. He was then posted to No.1 Coastal Operational Training Unit (COTU) based at Silloth, in Cumberland. Silloth was not described by some as homely place, having few permanent buildings and mainly tents for sleeping. The Mess was a small, local hotel used to serve the local golf course in peacetime

Here, starting on 16th September 1942, the now Sergeant Jack Philpott would fly a number of local sorties and familiarisation flights as ‘Observer’. All these flights would be carried out in a new aircraft, the Lockheed Hudson. The Hudson was a twin-engined, all metal skinned aircraft with a twin tail and a rather ‘tubby appearance’.

During these flights Jack would get used to the workings of the Hudson, the undercarriage, flaps and other systems, he would also undertake map reading exercises and fly along the coastline to familiarise himself with the landmarks. Other flights included trips across to Carlisle, Stranraer and onto Newcastle. During this flight on 28th October, the aircraft suffered from severe ‘up currents’ from the Scottish hills, this made flying the aircraft difficult for a ‘novice’.

November would see Jack and his pilot Sgt Hewitt, begin a series of Air Sea Rescue sorties as well as bombing and gunnery practice. The first search flight was for a lost Anson, an air sea rescue operation that produced no result. By the end of November (23rd), Jack would have achieved a further 33:05 hours of daylight flying and 3:45 night. His grading following this posting was as an ‘above average’ navigator and he was recommended for specialist raining by the Chief Flying Instructor at Silloth. This would end his period in Cumberland.

The new year would bring a new posting and the Ferry Unit at RAF Lyneham in Wiltshire. This would be a short stay, carrying out a small number of local flights, ferry flights and air tests, transferring to the Ferry Unit at Portreath in Cornwall, in Hudson AM631 on 9th February 1943 along with his pilot, Sgt Hewitt.

Posting to his first Operational Squadron.

On 10th February 1943 Jack would get his first operational posting to the Mediterranean and No. 500 Squadron RAF. He would fly out to Gibraltar that day, flying via Lisbon and having to navigate through very low cloud often ‘down to the deck’.

Whilst here, Jack would carry out further training again with the Mk.IX and Mk. IXA sextant. This would build on the work he did in the UK, with his last training flight occurring later on, on 20th July 1943.

On the next day 11th February 1943, the Hudson flew to Blida from Gibraltar, where the weather was good and the crew would carry out local circuits and familiarisation flights. Jack’s pilot for some of these flight would be F/L Barwod DFC in Hudson FX627, who would be replaced by F/O Fitzgerald in Hudson FK708 for dive bombing practice.

On the 19th February, F/O Poole DFC would be Jack’s pilot for his first operational sortie, taking off at 13:43 they would perform a convoy escort which was scrubbed after 2 hours into the flight because of deteriorating weather! A rather frustrating first experience no doubt.

The remainder of February saw four anti-submarine sweeps for Jack with his own pilot Sgt. Hewitt, flights that would take them around Algiers Bay, Bone, Oran and the Balearic islands off eastern Spain.

By the end of February 1943, Jack had flown 41:00 operational hours, over 7 sorties, giving a total of 10 sorties so far. His total operational flying hours now amounted to 51:00.

March 1943 was much of the same, but sightings were of a different nature. On the 2nd, flying in Hudson ‘Q’, Sgts. Hewitt, Philpott, Hickmott and Elliott, took off at 06:00 for a sweep of “Special X No. 1”. Whist flying, a Ju 88 was seen which initially appeared to turn to attack, but then flew into the sun and avoided combat with the Hudson. They returned to base landing at 12:30.

On the 15th, whilst performing a 7 hour flight, 2 convoys were sighted along with a whale as the sun sank over the horizon. Further convoy escorts which included several false contacts, sub hunts and a ship from convoy ‘Riband‘ which struck a submerged mine. Other convoys for the month included: ‘Sateen‘, ‘Don‘ and ‘Trafford‘.

On the 29th, the Hudson (AM781) in which Jack was flying with Sgt Hewitt, was involved in a U-boat strike. The U-boat, which was unidentified, was later reported destroyed off Ibiza. Another aircraft was seen, but it too was unidentified. The month ended with the escort of convoy ‘Lotus‘. A further 14 sorties this month took Jack’s operational flying total to 118:30 hours.

The next part currently being researched is Jack’s operational history. It involves numerous convoy escorts, sub hunts and a crash. I am also looking into his post war life and details of his early life, but described as a secretive man, he kept a lot to himself.