RAF West Raynham Trail 21 – Part 5.

We have now seen how West Raynham developed from an expansion period airfield, through the Second World War and on into the Cold War. With tensions now easing and Government cuts biting hard, the future of West Raynham and the Service, hangs in the balance. But with new jets in the pipeline, changes to the Nuclear deterrent coming, a new direction may save the airfield from immediate closure. We also see how one man takes matters into his own hands and protests as these events which are to shape the future Air Force.

Later in August that same year, Nos. 1 and 54 Squadrons arrived at West Raynham boosting the numbers of personnel present here once more. Both units transferred over from Waterbeach in Cambridgeshire, in a move that saw the return of the Hawker Hunter F.G.A. 9.

No.1 Squadron, one of the RAF’s longest serving squadrons had provided almost continuous service since 1912, and had flown a wide variety of aircraft across Britain, France and the Far East. They brought with them a long and distinguished history.

It was perhaps a No. 1 Sqn pilot who defined West Raynham’s lasting legacy, that of the Flight Commander – Flight Lieutenant Alan Pollock, who around midday on 5th April 1968, flew a Hawker Hunter FGA.9 (XF442) between the two spans of Tower Bridge in London. The stunt, a protest by Pollock already annoyed at the Government’s defence cuts, was to raise the concerns of personnel at the lack of celebration of the RAF’s fiftieth anniversary. After leaving Tangmere (following a celebration dinner) he and his colleagues headed back toward their home base at RAF West Raynham. Pollock then turned away from the group and flew at tree top level along the Thames circling the Houses of Parliament no less than three times, before dipping his wings at the RAF Memorial and heading along the river and home. However, before long he was faced with Tower Bridge and a split second decision had to made. He decided to fly through the arches rather than over the bridge.

His fate was well and truly sealed, he was going to be disciplined and severely. On the way home, his single handed salute to the service he adored included ‘beating up’ Wattisham, Lakenheath and Marham airfields, before carrying out an inverted flypast at West Raynham. On landing, Pollock was arrested by the Military Police, after which a long, drawn out legal process was put into place. Rather than face a public outcry, the authorities gave him the ‘option’ to leave on medical grounds or through the more severe removal under Queens Regulations with the loss of all financial backing.

There was no option, and Flt. Lt. Pollock was sent packing. The political fallout from the event went on for months afterwards, leading to a stronger rebellion from the press who were already gunning for the Wilson Government. No one in authority wanted their ‘dirty washing’ aired in a public hearing.

54 Sqn meanwhile operated out of West Raynham as part of 38 Group Air Support Command.  A role that required them to fly as a ground support unit, operating in conjunction with army ground forces. They flew from West Raynham for seven years, departing at the end of the decade. During this time, they would reinforce the Mediterranean and Germany even locating to Gibraltar after political ‘pressure’ from General Franco.

The 1960s also saw a change in direction for Britain’s defence network, which was brought about by the same 1957 Defence White Paper that saw the demise of 85 Sqn. The basis of this saw manned fighters be replaced by guided missiles along with investment in the V bombers, a retaliatory force that could deliver Britain’s nuclear weapons arsenal.

On September 1st, 1965, the first of West Raynham’s guided surface-to-air missiles arrived. The reformation of No. 41 Sqn with two units (sixteen missiles in each) saw the construction of a secure Bloodhound missile site on the eastern side of the airfield. These MK.II guided weapons would become the main airfield protection system of that time, although their presence only lasted five years before the unit was again disbanded and the missiles put onto storage.

With the birth of vertical take off and landings in the form of the Kestrel (later the Harrier) an evaluation unit was set up here at West Raynham. Designed to test the flying abilities of the Kestrel, up to and including near service conditions, it was made up of pilots from the UK, USA and West Germany. The unit, designated the Tri-Partite Evaluation Squadron Royal Air Force (TES), was designed to see how the aircraft would perform from both airfields and unprepared sites, using its VTOL and STOL capabilities. To this end the unit also used Buckenham Tofts located in the Stanford Training Area, the Army’s huge training area near to Thetford.

Testing any new aircraft is a risky business, the Kestrel being no different, and on April 1st 1965, Kestrel XS696, caught fire and crashed following a take off from West Raynham. Only a month old, the aircraft was struck off charge the same day as a Cat.5(c) and the remains scrapped after all recoverable components had been removed. The pilot was thankfully unhurt in the incident.

The accident didn’t completely deter the US Government though, and at the end of the year, six aircraft were sold to the US for further tests. Initially they were not convinced of its use, but the US Marine Corps were interested, and subsequently a long service began for the Harrier in both the US and here in the UK.

In 1967, Napalm saw a return to West Raynham when famously the Torrey Canyon struck rocks off the Cornish coast. The ship soon grounded and began to break up, spilling its cargo of oil onto rocks and into the waters around Cornwall. The Government decided to bomb the stricken vessel to reduce the impact of the oil spill, and so aircraft from the Fleet Air Arm and RAF were called in to bomb it. No. 1 Squadron were assigned the challenge and four Hunters were tasked with the role. Eventually after several attempts the wreck finally sank and much of the oil was burnt off.

Two years later in 1969, both No. 1 and No. 54 Sqns departed West Raynham. Their gap quickly being filled by No. 4 Sqn who arrived in September that year staying until the following March. Both 1 and 54 Sqns would become new Harrier units, forming squadrons in both Germany and here in the UK.

The dawning of 1972 saw the return of 85 Sqn, who after a spell of some nine years at Binbrook, returned with a new model Canberra the PR.3, a long range photo-reconnaissance aircraft, it was unarmed and relied on its high speed to escape any enemy aircraft.

A month later in February, it was decided to also reform 100 Sqn here at West Raynham, initially using staff from 85 Sqn. Starting off with the Canberra B.2, they quickly began changing these for the T.19, essentially a T.II with its Airborne Intercept radar (A.I.) removed – West Raynham was now awash with Canberras. One of the roles of 85 Sqn was to act as enemy intruders so QRA crews could perform practice intercepts. Although the QRA crews were aware of the nature of the intercepts, Canberras would fly in low and then climb over the UK coast imitating a Soviet bomber – often to great success.

On June 26th 1972 tragedy would strike at West Raynham once more, when a 100 Sqn Canberra T.19 ‘WJ610’ crashed shortly after take off. The Aircraft, crewed by  Flight Lieutenant Nicholas Whitlock (pilot) with navigator Flight Lieutenant John Sheran, struck trees 2 miles south, south west of Rougham whereupon it burst into flames killing both airmen.

In the months before the accident, the aircraft had been on loan to 85 Sqn, although this had no bearing on the cause of the crash itself, but it has led to some confusion as to which squadron it was actually with at that time,

Investigations recorded that the aircraft was one of a pair that took off in bad weather flying on instruments. Then as it entered low cloud, Flt. Lt. Whitlock reported that the aircraft had suffered an undercarriage problem, at which point it peeled away from its leader, the assumption being that Flt. Lt. Whitlock was aiming to deal with the issue in hand. The investigation surmised that he may have been concentrating on the gear issue and became disorientated as a result. It is thought this then led to the accident and the aircraft’s inverted crash.

As a result of the tragic loss, formation take offs by Canberras were subsequently prohibited, any future take offs having a minimum of 30 seconds between each departing aircraft, it was a tragic loss that served to help others*2.

A brief interlude in the autumn of 1972 saw the reformation of 45 Sqn with Hunter F.G.A.9s, once established and organised the unit quickly transferred out, leaving West Raynham behind.

The 1970s saw further big changes within the RAF. The handing over of the nuclear deterrent to the Royal Navy for one along with Britain’s air defence missiles (Bloodhound) being withdrawn and transferred to Germany. However, later concerns over potential attacks forced a review, and as a result, in December 1975, 85 Sqn were disbanded, the aircraft were transferred out, and they were  immediately reformed as a new Bloodhound unit. The missiles were brought out of storage and placed here in Norfolk. Some of the 85 Sqn personnel were absorbed into West Raynham’s 100 Sqn but they would only remain here at West Raynham for a further month before they too moved out.

Bloodhound

Bloodhound Missile at the Norfolk and Suffolk Air Museum (2014)

85 Sqn operated across a number of sites. Primarily based at West Raynham, they had Flights at both Bawdsey on the south Essex coast and North Coates in Lincolnshire. In October 1989 the squadron grew further, absorbing No. 25 Sqn, which gave the unit three more Flights at Wattisham, Barkston Heath and Wyton. By the start of the 1990s though, Bloodhound had become obsolete ‘Rapiers’ being the new low level airfield defence missile, and so Flights ‘B’, ‘C’ , ‘D’, and ‘F’ were all disbanded. This left the HQ (West Raynham), ‘A’ Flight (North Coates) and ‘E’ Flight (Wattisham), until these too were disbanded the following summer.

RAF West Raynham

West Raynham’s Rapier training dome is now of ‘Historic Interest’. (2015)

By the time the 1980s had dawned, front line flying at West Raynham had been scaled back and no operational fighter units were based here. The airfield had entered the long and slow wind down to eventual closure.

By July 1991, with the last of the Bloodhound units being disbanded, the missiles they had been using scrapped or sold to the Swiss military, and the personnel pulled out, the site was left all but empty.

Any residue support units were also removed and in 1994 West Raynham finally closed its hangar doors. The airfield itself remained in MOD hands, but sadly the housing lay empty and it quickly became derelict, targeted by vandals. The accommodation blocks were damaged and windows were smashed. Long debates and scornful banter over the housing shortage boiled over in parliament and sites such as West Raynham were seen as prime land, with a huge infrastructure already in place, they were half way to meeting the needs of a growing community. The MOD eventually gave in, agreed to the sale and the site was handed over.

The two gate guardians, a Bloodhound missile ended up at Cosford Museum whilst the Javelin XH980 , was scrapped on site and disposed of. Since then the site remained closed and quiet.

This closure left what is a rare example of a complete wartime  and post-war airfield. As a result, many of its buildings are now of ‘historical interest’ and attempts at obtaining a Grade II listing to a large number of the airfield’s buildings was made by the English Heritage. Sadly, this was later withdrawn and no follow-up made although the post war Watch Office is now Grade II listed and more recently a private dwelling.

For many years the site stood empty gradually decaying.  A number of planning applications were submitted and some of the accommodation blocks were transformed into private homes. This has thankfully meant that the original style and layout has been maintained. However, the runway and Bloodhound sites have now gone, having been replaced by what is reputed to be, one of Britain’s largest Solar Parks.

In 2016 a proposal was put forward to develop the site into a mix of housing, leisure facilities and industrial units, all utilising the existing buildings where possible. A design brief was put forward by FW Properties who estimated the 158 acre site to be worth £7.3m with a refurbishment value of some £5.2m. The proposal was for a four phase plan to include refurbishment of the original properties for housing, redevelopment of the landscape and infrastructure and new builds to create an integrated community on the site. A grand proposal that would keep the integrity of the site and utilise as many of the buildings as possible.

When I initially visited, the site had been sealed off, but the control tower along with a wide range of smaller ancillary buildings, were all shrouded in scaffolding. The  Officers Mess had seen better days and the adjacent tennis courts had been reclaimed by trees.

The Rapier training dome, original Battle headquarters and wartime pill boxes were also evident. A memorial to the crews of West Raynham had been erected in what is now the centre of a housing area that utilises the old accommodation blocks.

Today, much of it hasn’t changed, many of the smaller buildings continue to decay, but the post war watch office is a private dwelling, open for visitors and tours on heritage days, the guard house is a shop for fire places and the hangars are used by small, light industrial companies.

A Hunter F.1 ‘WT660’ has been acquired and sits near to the modern watch office, previously on display/stored in Scotland, it has been brought back to be refurbished and displayed in the colours it would have worn whilst in the Day Fighter Leader School between 1955 and 1957 here at West Raynham.

RAF West Raynham

The West Raynham memorial sits next in the former accommodation area.

West Raynham is one of only a few complete sites that reflect the development and commitment of Britain’s air defences. Its origins and initial construction in the 1930s has seen continued improvements leading to its gaining a remarkable status that few other sites have gained.

Throughout its history it has seen a wide range of units, personnel and aircraft, it has been a training airfield, a front line fighter defence, a bomber airfield and even a missile base. Its future is now in the hands of a developer, who are implementing a gradual change from airfield to community utilising the main buildings on site to support light industry and housing. What the eventual model will look like only time will tell, lets hope the promises hold and West Raynham becomes a model for other disused airfields before they are bulldozed and all their history cleared for evermore.

I hope to make a further visit shortly and capture some more up to date photos.

The full story can be read in Trail 21 – North Norfolk Part 2.

Sources and further Reading (West Raynham).

*1 National Archives Operational Record Book 114 Sqn August 1941 – AIR 27/882/36

*2 Aviation Safety Network database

*3 National Archives AIR 27/882/36

*4 National Archives AIR 27/1456/75

*5 “Hansard 1803–2005”  digitised editions of Commons and Lords Hansard, the Official Report of debates in Parliament. Hunter Aircraft (report of Enquiry)

National Archives AIR 27/731/1

AIR 27/801/1
AIR 27/882/33
AIR 27/2870/21
AIR 27/971/33

For personal stories and more photos see the West Raynham Association website.

The West Raynham Development Brief published by FW Properties.

My thanks to Jon Booty at the West Raynham Control Tower for corrections.

RAF West Raynham Trail 21 – Part 4.

At the end of Part 3, West Raynham had seen the war out and entered a new stage of life. With more upgrades and new aircraft arriving, its future looked secure. But not all would be well for those stationed here. The mid 50s, would see a tragedy that could have been so much worse.

The immediate post war period then saw fighter trials become the order of the day. The Royal Navy basing many of their types here for various trials and research projects. With two second line squadrons bringing their aircraft here No 746 Sqn  and No 787 Sqn, the last piston engined examples to fly from West Raynham were the Fireflys and Hellcats of 746 Sqn RN, operating as part of the Naval Fighter Development Unit.

With the departure of the last aircraft, West Raynham was once again earmarked for upgrading which included amongst other things, another new watch office, designed to replace the mid-war example that had served so well. An additional extension to the perimeter track was also planned in, as was the creation of further, larger hardstands. In addition to all this, an increase in personnel was also envisaged and so extensions to the accommodation areas were also planned in once more. These upgrades were not subject to the same planning constraints as those originally built, and as such these buildings were not as ‘impressive’ as the older, original examples that remained on the site.

This particular watch office example (294/45), was a new and modern approach to airfield control buildings, incorporating for the first time an airfield control room (ACR later called Visual Control Room) the first of its kind. What made this building more significant than its predecessors was that it was designed with three floors as opposed to two, a style more commonly seen at wartime Naval stations.

The ground floor was primarily used as crew rest rooms (air and fire) with a kitchen, GPO equipment and a meteorological room. The first floor contained a planning room with a large plotting table and map wall, a feature reminiscent of World War II watch offices. A number of smaller rooms were also located off this room, providing accommodation for the Wing Commander and a Navigation Officer. The top floor was primarily the airfield control room (ACR) again a plotting table and additional staff rooms were located here. Also found here was the airfield lighting panel, R/T equipment and access to the ‘glasshouse’ above, with its distinguishable slanted windows. This floor gave a complete 3600 view around the entire airfield, a much improved view over pre and mid-war designs. The very design of this building has since been its saviour, as the best example of only one of five examples, its architectural interest, rarity, ‘completeness’ and interior systems, have enabled Historic England to list it as a  Grade II building; this should at least offer it some protection from future development or demolition.

On completion of the work the airfield was passed to The Central Fighter Establishment (CFE) under the control of the RAF, where it began a new role as Britain’s top fighter training establishment, taking the airfield through the 1960s and on into the 1970s.

The CFE was a huge organisation formed in late 1944 through the amalgamation of a number of other training units: The Fighter Interception Unit, Air Fighting Development Unit, Fighter Combat School and the Fighter Leader School to name but a few. It would use personnel from across the military spectrum including: the RAF, Fleet Air Arm, Army Air Corps and the United States Air Force.

THE ROYAL AIR FORCE, 1950-1969

Aircraft of the Central Fighter Establishment (CFE) October 1962, before moving to RAF Binbrook. Aircraft represented: (L to R): Spitfire (P5853), EE Lightning F.1 (XM136), Gloster Javelin, Hawker Hunter F.6 (XF515) & Hawker Hunter T.7 (XL595). In the foreground are personnel representing the CFE including RAF, Fleet Air Arm, Army Air Corps and United States Air Force. (@IWM RAF-T 3476)

During this time, West Raynham operated as both a front line fighter base and as an aircrew training airfield. This would mean a huge influx of personnel and so a  return to the high numbers of staff and aircraft that had been seen here during the war-time period.

In 1956, tragedy struck The Central Fighter Establishment here at West Raynham, when on 8th February, eight Hunter F1s took off from the airfield to carry out an exercise only to have six of them crash.

The exercise, a 4 against 4 dogfight involved two instructors and six students, and took place around 45,000ft in airspace above the airfield. By the time it had been completed, the weather over West Raynham had deteriorated so much that the eight aircraft had to be diverted to an alternative airfield, and RAF Marham was assigned. The cloud base was by now very low over West Raynham, as little as 250ft in places, and so a visual landing was almost impossible without GCA talk down (Ground Controlled Approach). Unfortunately, there was substantial R/T congestion that day and Marham GCA had great difficulty in picking up the Hunters. By now, the group had paired off and each pair had descended, flying low over West Raynham to pick up a heading for Marham’s runway (both runways were almost in direct line of each other), most of the aircraft were by now down to just minutes of fuel in their tanks.

By the time the aircraft were approaching Marham, the weather there had also deteriorated, and as such, the aircraft were unable to make a GCA landing. Of the eight, two managed to land one running out of fuel as it departed the runway, but the remaining six aircraft struggled, low on fuel and unable to see the ground, it became a near catastrophe.

Of those six, Hunter ‘WW639’ ‘N’ descended to 250 ft, after which the pilot lost visual contact with his leader. Now lacking sufficient fuel to land safely or divert elsewhere, the pilot elected to climb to 2,000 ft and eject. The Hunter, now pilot-less and without power, then crashed 3 miles south of Swaffham.

The second Hunter, ‘WW635’ ‘L’ was the only aircraft to have a fatality. The aircraft crashing four-and-a-half miles north-west of Swaffham killing the pilot Sqn. Ldr. R.J. Tumilty, (31).

The pilot of the next aircraft, Hunter ‘WW633’ ‘H’, descended to 500 ft, but with limited ground visibility also decided to climb away. Unfortunately he suffered an engine flame out and so ejected from the aircraft leaving it to crash in a field three-and-a-half miles north-west of Swaffham.

The fourth Hunter, ‘WW603’ ‘G’ attempted to land, but only managed a wheels up landing after also suffering a flame out. The aircraft came down not far from the eastern side of the airfield, the pilot escaping unhurt.

The fifth pilot, that of ‘WT639’  ‘N’, descended to 600 ft after being unable to contact Marham GCA. The cloud at this level was very dense, and also after losing his leader he too elected to climb away. As with other Hunters that day, he also suffered a flame out  and so ejected at 2,500 ft leaving the aircraft to fall to Earth in a forest 2.5 miles south-west of Swaffham.

The final aircraft, ‘WT629’ ‘T’ suffered the same fate as many of the others. After running out of fuel, and unable to see the ground at 600 ft, the pilot elected to climb to 4,000 ft and eject.  Now without either power or a pilot, the aircraft crashed in fields 2 miles northwest of Swaffham.

In a ministerial briefing after the Court of Enquiry had published their report, it was noted that the aircraft were not defective nor was there any question of inadequate fuel being supplied. The short range of early jets and these Hunters in particular being acknowledged by those present. The board highlighting that “the accidents were primarily caused by the sudden and unexpected deterioration in the weather“.

The board then questioned the basis of the divert to Marham, as it was based on the assumption that the weather was good at Marham.

The question then arises whether, notwithstanding the deterioration that had taken place at West Raynham, the decision taken to divert the aircraft to Marham, spaced for visual landings, was correct. This diversion was ordered on the assumption that visual landings would be possible”.

The conclusion was that mistakes had been made and the report then went on to firmly lay the blame at the controller’s feet:

The findings of the enquiry concluded that this was an error on the part of the controllers at West Raynham, “who failed to appreciate that, because of the relative positions of the two airfields, it was probable that any deterioration in the weather at West Raynham would affect Marham shortly afterwards, thus necessitating Ground Control Approach landings there”.*5

As a result, controllers at West Raynham were subjected to disciplinary action over the incident, one of whom was removed from his post. It was a sad day indeed for the squadron and for all those who were involved at West Raynham. However, what turned out to be a loss of one life could have been so tragically worse.

The 1960s then saw even more changes at the airfield. As tensions across the world began to rise once more, so the country was put on alert. At West Raynham more new squadrons would arrive, the first, 85 Sqn, arrived at the airfield in September 1960, bringing more front line fighters to the site, this time it was Gloster’s distinguishable delta, the Javelin FAW 8.

Whilst at their previous base RAF West Malling, the squadron had been dogged with both starter problems and the serviceability of the A.I. radars on the Javelins; both of which continued after they arrived at West Raynham. At the end of the month senior officials from both the RAF and G.E.C. visited the base  with a view to resolving the ongoing A.I. situation. However, the problems persisted even after they had gone, problems which merely compounded other issues the squadron were having around poorly fitted equipment, bad weather and surprisingly a lack of married quarters.

The Javelin was brought in to complement the Lightning, operating in the Night Fighter and all weather role, it was designed to intercept bombers that threatened the cities or airfields of Britain. In order to train aircrew in this role, a number of ‘support’ units were also established during this time. These included the Javelin Operational Conversion Squadron, a unit set up to convert pilots to the Javelin from other aircraft; the Fighter Support Development Squadron; the Fighter Command Instrument Training Squadron; the Radar Interception Development Squadron; the Night All Weather Wing and the Night Fighter Development Wing, along with numerous other units that supported the training of fighter pilots at this very busy airfield.

In July / August 1962, there were a spate of engine fires in Javelins at West Raynham, something that seemed to be a problem with these aircraft. Three such events affected XJ128, XA646 and XA701 during a three week period. There are no reports of injuries as a result of the incidents, and records simply show ‘engine fires at start up’. But it would appear to have been a rather regular occurrence at this time.

85 Squadron was then disbanded on March 31st 1963, a move that was forced by Duncan Sandy’s White Paper cutting back military expenditure on front line fighter units. They immediately reformed the next day taking over from the Target Facilities Squadron. They obtained new aircraft to fulfil the role, the Canberra T.11 – a B.2 converted to facilitate target towing, fighter interception and navigator training; all achieved through the fitting of a nose radome and A.I. radar. Their stay at West Raynham only lasted one more month though, when they finally left, transferring out to RAF Binbrook in Lincolnshire.

As Duncan Sandy’s White paper cut deep into the heart of the RAF, many of those connected with the Force were angered. In the last part of West Raynham, we see how one man took matters into his own hands only to suffer the severe consequences.

The full story can be read in Trail 21 – North Norfolk Part 2.

RAF West Raynham Trail 21 – Part 3.

In Part 2 we saw how Basil Embry was assigned to West Raynham but never made it, attacks by Blenheims on the German fleet and how the B-17 was used for trails as an RAF bomber. In part 3 we see more daring attacks by West Raynham aircraft, one of which saw the awarding of fifteen medals to airmen, many of which were West Raynham crews.

The summer of 1941 saw a great deal of activity at West Raynham. The changes, led by the departure of 90 Sqn in June, was quickly followed by the departure of West Raynham’s long standing 101 Sqn to Oakington in July. This meant that space was freed up for two new squadrons 114 Sqn and 268 Sqn along with a detachment of 614 Sqn.

RAF West Raynham

One of the many ‘H’ accommodation blocks on site (2015).

The first of these units, 268 Sqn, was not based here but stayed on a short temporary basis whilst on a ‘Bulldog‘ exercise; ‘A’ and ‘B’ echelons transferring in on the 20th June from RAF Snailwell near Newmarket. At the time, the exercise was said to be the biggest such operation to be held in the UK, an event that saw co-operation between air and ground forces. A section from this party travelled from West Raynham to open an Advanced Landing Ground (ALG) at Barton Bendish, not far from Downham Market, in Norfolk. The next day was then spent opening communication lines between West Raynham, the Corps Headquarters and Barton Bendish.

Over the next couple of days aircraft flew out of both Barton Bendish and West Raynham, amassing some twenty-five sorties in all, mainly low-level reconnaissance flights, collecting a mass of information about the ‘ground forces’ taking part in the exercise. On the 24th, the exercise was completed, and both air and ground staff departed West Raynham heading back to their base at Snailwell.

The second squadron, a detachment of Lysander IIIs, arrived here from the Macmerry based 614 Sqn. The small unit exchanged these aircraft for Blenheim IVs shortly after their arrival, performing in the Air Sea Rescue role for almost a year before they too departed this Norfolk site.

The last of the three units, 114 Sqn, arrived overnight of the 19th / 20th July, crews and ground personnel ferrying aircraft and equipment to West Raynham in three separate parties. With little time to settle in, operations began almost immediately.

On the 22nd, with ten aircraft heading to targets along the French coast, attacks were made by six Blenheims from between 10,000 and 15,000 ft on sheds and slipways, a number of hits were seen and the sheds appeared to be badly damaged in the attack. On leaving the target, clouds of smoke were seen to be rising from the ground, a welcome sight for the unwelcome intruders. A further three aircraft however, failed to find their primary target in a separate attack, and a single aircraft on a beat patrol also failed to locate a target, and so no bombs were dropped by either of these two sections. Flak was generally light on all occasions and still the Luftwaffe failed to make a dedicated appearance.

These intruder operations continued on, and on July 23rd another small raiding party attacked similar targets in similar locations, these however, were met with considerably more anti-aircraft fire. Regardless of the intense ground fire though, all aircraft returned without any major problems although some had received extensive damage to their air frames.

During August, a major attack was arranged with massed fighter escort on target GO.1237 – the Knapsack Power Station in northern Germany. The attack was to involve fifty-four Blenheims along with their fighter escorts. The operation, led by Wing Commander Nicol, was a daylight raid which took place in the late morning between 400 and 500 feet. Considerable damage was seen to be done to the plant; chimneys were hit, pipes were fractured, sheds were hit by bombs and a considerable amount of debris was thrown up into the air. The attack, the first of several, had proved to be a big success. The return journey then proved to be as eventful as the attack itself; flying at low-level, Dutch citizens were seen to wave to the bombers, a cheering site no doubt, and certainly one more pleasurable than the unfortunate flight of ducks that were struck by  some of the aircraft. One of the observers on return commented “the impact was as terrifying as flak“.*1

The attack was considered so successful and so daring that an entry was made in the London Gazette 357237 on 12th September 1941, in which the crews’ bravery was highlighted and the many awards that had subsequently been granted were listed. It read:

Air Ministry, 12th September, 1941.
ROYAL AIR FORCE.

“The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the following awards in recognition of gallantry displayed in flying operations against the enemy: —

On the morning of I2th August, 1941, Blenheim bombers carried out  simultaneous attacks on the great power stations near Cologne. A strong force attacked the station at Knapsack, whilst a smaller force attacked two stations at Quadrath. These missions involved a flight of some 250 miles over enemy territory which was carried out at an altitude of 100 feet. At Knapsack the target was accurately bombed and machine gunned from between 200 and 800 feet and at Quadrath both power stations were hit from the height of the chimneys; the turbine House at one of the two stations was left a mass of flames and smoke. The success of this combined daylight attack and the co-ordination of the many formations of aircraft depended largely on accurate timing throughout the flight. That complete success was achieved, despite powerful opposition from enemy ground and air forces, is a high tribute to the calm-courage and resolute determination displayed by .the following officers and airmen, who participated, in various capacities as leaders and members of the aircraft crews”.

The medals included two DSOs, ten DFCs and three DFMs. Among them was Wing Commander James Nicol (DSO); Acting Squadron Leader Alan Judson (DFC); Flying Officer Herbert  Madden (DFC) and Acting Flying Officer Thomas Baker (DFC) all of 114 Sqn. The remaining awards being given to crews in other squadrons who also took part in the daring attack.

Two days after the operation, on the 14th August, Wing Commander James Nicol along with Sqn. Ldr. Judson and Sgt. Davidson, with their respective crews, travelled to RAF Polebrook to meet the A.O.C about the operation. The A.O.C. chatted to the men before congratulating them on their great success. The next day, Sgt. Griffiths (W.Op/G) travelled to London to make a recording for the BBC about the raid, talking about it from an eye-witness’s point of view. The recording was then broadcast over the next two days giving both the squadron and the nation a much needed boost in morale.

The joy for Wing Commander Nicol was to be short lived though. On the 19th August 1941, his plane failed to return from operations, Nicol along with Sgt. E. Jones and F.O. H. Madden were classed as “Presumed Missing”, they were later found to have been killed. A second Blenheim from the squadron also went missing that night, a reconnaissance flight with the loss of three more crewmen.*3 Nicol and his crew remain with no known grave and so are all commemorated on the Runnymede Memorial.

The October saw more changes to the gunnery training unit being performed here at  West Raynham. 2 TTF was disbanded and renamed as 1482 (Target Towing and Gunnery) Flight. Some additional aircraft were brought in including the Defiant and Tomahawk, but their work, towing targets for gunners to aim at, continued on. In late 1942, it would change name again this time becoming 1482 (Bomber) Gunnery Flight. The unit would eventually disband in 1944 at Swanton Morley, the use of such units now being seen as obsolete.

The opening of January 1942, saw 114 Sqn off operational flying as a new training flight was created from within the unit. The number of new recruits, many of whom had directly transferred across from army co-operation units, was so high that this flight had became urgent. For the time being, gunnery training, formation flying and other training flights took precedence over all operational flying.

The training was interrupted on February 12th 1942 though, when orders came through to 114 Sqn to immediately dispatch six aircraft to attack the German warships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau which were making their way up the English Channel from Brest to their home docks in Germany. Joined by Prinz Eugen and a host of other vessels, this became known as the “Channel Dash” in which Bomber Command, the Fleet Air Arm and the Royal Navy all had a hand in. The first West Raynham group took off early afternoon and attacked from a height of 15,000 ft, diving through cloud cover they experienced “intense flak”. A second order came through some three hours later for a further three aircraft from 114 Sqn, and they too departed, bombed up, to attack the fleet.

As with the first wave, they dived through cloud from 15,000 ft. Not only did they experience intense flak, but the weather was appalling, heavy rain and poor visibility made sighting very difficult. Some bombs were dropped and photographs were taken, but the attack was not a success and the Blenheims returned to West Raynham, some still with their bombs on board after having been unable to sufficiently see their targets.

In September, there was another change at West Raynham with the forming of yet another new squadron, 180 Sqn along with the reforming of a former World War I unit, 98 Sqn, both within a day of each other.  Given North American B-25 ‘Mitchell’ IIs, both units very quickly moved out of West Raynham, each one transferring to RAF Foulsham where they would begin performing new duties within the month.

The departure of 114 Sqn in November signalled another major change for this Norfolk airfield. Now effectively left without any operational squadrons, a major refurbishment was on the cards, and it wouldn’t be too long before the contractors would move in.

For the whole of 1943, little flying activity took place here at West Raynham. A short interruption by the arrival and subsequent departure of 342 (Lorraine) Sqn (a Free French unit) on April 1st and May 15th respectively, did little to delay the upgrading.

The entire site was then expanded. The first move was to replace the two grass runways with concrete and tarmac examples (one 2,000 yards and the other 1,400 yards). In addition, more hardstands were added around the perimeter track, and on the technical site, a new watch office was constructed.

West Raynham

One of the many buildings left on site.

A new two storey design (4698/43) the Watch Office allowed new airfield lighting equipment to be installed at the site. This would assist aircraft when landing or taking off, making the airfield more visible when needed.

In addition to these improvements, the accommodation area was also expanded, this is was thought, would allow for the perceived influx of new personnel. By the end of the upgrading, West Raynham would be able to accommodate up to 2,500 men and 660 WAAFs.

In December 1943, the airfield passed over to 100 (Bomber Support) Group, where upon two more squadrons arrived at the newly refurbished base – 141 Sqn and 239 Sqn. Both these units would operate the D.H Mosquito the ‘Wooden Wonder‘ in a variety of marks: II, FB, VI and NF 30, all performing as night intruders. Both units would retain these aircraft to the war’s end and their eventual disbandment in the summer of 1945.

That month was not only filled with intruder flights, but football matches. A series of games culminated on December 23rd when a West Raynham team beat Norwich City 5-1 – a marvellous result for the RAF.

Outside of football, sorties continued, and for 141 Squadron, their last operational flight was to bomb the airfields at Hohn and Flensburg in Germany using Napalm gel. Buildings were set alight and a dog-fight ensued but one Mosquito was unable to jettison one of its Napalm tanks, and brought it home to West Raynham dropping it on the runway. The damage this caused meant that those crews from 239 Sqn who had also been out, supporting bombing raids at Keil, had to divert to alternative airfields. The subsequent problems led to the 239 Sqn Wing Commander being somewhat annoyed, blaming the “untidiness of a pilot of No. 141 Squadron who brought home one of his nasty oil bombs and dropped it on the runway“.*4 More associated with Vietnam, the squadron had dropped in excess of 11,000 gallons of the gel causing extensive damage by the war’s end.

With the announcement of VE day just days later, the celebrations began. The airfield beacon was changed to flash ‘V’ instead of ‘WR’, and the ‘Sandra Lights’ (three search lights positioned around the airfield which could be directed upwards to form a homing cone) were switched on. A large bonfire was enjoyed by all and even with 22 barrels of beer, there was a lot of “quiet fun and no excesses at all“.

The month closed with a great deal of uncertainty, a comment in the Operational Record Books summing up the general feelings: “The cessation of operational flying and the transition to a semi peace-time basis, is a little disturbing after the day to day activities of the months gone by.”

Understandably as talk of the Far East or disbandment became rife, many questions were asked about their future . The Wing Commander of 239 Sqn adding his personal concerns to the ORB*4Who is going where? Am I for the Far East? If so, on what type? Am I going to Transport Command? Am I going to be a flying instructor again?” These thoughts no doubt reflecting those of many based around Britain’s wartime airfields at this time.

With the arrival of VE day thoughts of those at West Raynham quickly turned elsewhere. In Part 4 of this visit, we see how West Raynham undergoes another upgrade, the airfield takes on a new role and West Raynham enters the jet age.

The full story can be read in Trail 21 – North Norfolk Part 2.

RAF West Raynham Trail 21 – Part 2.

Carrying on from Part 1, we see a new Station Commander appointed. His determination to lead by example though, led to an ‘unfortunate incident’ which prevented his arrival here at this Norfolk site. We also see how West Raynham aircraft took part in attacks on the German fleet and a new heavy bomber arrives for trails.

It was also at this time that a new station commander was appointed, Acting Group Captain Basil Embry, whose career to date had been varied and long. He had served in the RAF for 20 years already, in locations that included Turkey, the Middle East, the Far East and the UK. Embry led by example, taking his squadron into daring battles over Norway much against the ideals and wishes of those who were higher up in the chain of command. The move to put him in charge at West Raynham was considered an attempt to restrict his flying ambitions forcing him to keep his feet firmly on the ground. A move that Embry didn’t appreciate.

Royal Air Force- 2nd Tactical Air Force, 1943-1945. CL2739.jpg

Sir Basil Embry and his staff (right). Wikipedia

On the day of his appointment, he had one last flight, and took both his crews and a new Commanding Officer, Wing Commander L.R. Stokes into battle. However, his luck was to run out, and on leaving the target near St. Omer, his aircraft was shot down. The air gunner was killed in the attack, but Embry, along with his navigator, managed to bale out. What happened next was a dramatic series of events that led to Embry attempting to escape three times finally being successful on the last attempt. After making his way across France to Spain, he then made his way back to England where he took up active service once more.

Embry was highlighted as a possible leader for the new Pathfinder Group, but he  was overlooked by Arthur Harris in favour of Donald Bennett. However, this did not inhibit Embry’s career, for he reached the heights of Air Chief Marshal and a service record with the RAF that extended long after the war had ended.

However, the incident meant that Embry never made it to West Raynham, his absence being briefly filled by the arrival of 139 Sqn. As the personnel were settling in, they were greeted with the news that their own Commanding Officer, Wing Commander Louis W. Dickens, was to be awarded the DFC for his action in leading nine Blenheims in an attack in which they faced heavy Luftwaffe opposition. The entire Squadron, apart from a ‘skeleton staff’, were all given eight days leave following the announcement.

Shortly after, and as was with many other units who found themselves here, 139 Sqn were soon ordered out of West Raynham once more, and by early June all squadron personnel had departed, neither Embry nor 139 Sqn had experienced much of this expanding Norfolk airfield.

The pattern of sort stay squadrons would continue on, and June would see yet another one, that of 18 Sqn, who on arrival, made their headquarters in No. 2 Hangar at the airfield. Classed as a medium bomber squadron it would have the ‘standard complement of personnel’ split into two flights. Another Blenheim unit, they quickly took up operations flying over Germany and the low countries, attacking targets in northern Germany, France and Belgium. These initial operations were regularly hampered by poor weather though, and many of the aircraft had to regularly return early due to fog, heavy cloud or rain. On the better days, when attacks were successful, sorties took them over Holland and Northern France attacking airfields and barges moored along the coast.

The squadron was soon transferred out of West Raynham though, and by early  September, 101 Sqn was once again the only operational flying unit at the airfield.

At this point, it was decided to redevelop the airfield with new hardstands being constructed around the perimeter track. The process would last well into 1941 before it was completed, but it would allow aircraft to be parked and maintained on hard surfaces rather than grass where manoeuvring must have proven difficult over the previous poor winter months.

The new year brought a new tactic to 2 Group. With fighter flights failing to bring the Luftwaffe up to engage, it was decided to send the light bombers of 2 Group to entice them up. These ‘Circus‘ operations were designed to bring enemy fighters up so the escorting Spitfires and Hurricanes could engage with them.  Primarily as bait, this new tactic would be the main focus for the Group for the remainder of the year.

Then in April 1941, another new major operation was mounted and it would be 101 Sqn who would be the first to take part.

Officially known as ‘Channel Stop’, the idea was to prevent enemy shipping from using the English Channel, the vital link between the North Sea and Baltic bases and the wide open expanses of the Atlantic Ocean. Aircraft transferred across to RAF Manston in Kent, where they would be kept on alert to attack at a moments notice. Their targets being any enemy shipping seen attempting to traverse the narrow stretch of water between England and France. These attacks would be carried out during daylight hours, and backed up at night by Motor Torpedo Boats (MTB) from the Royal Navy. The first of the 101 Sqn Blenheims assigned to the role, flew from West Raynham to Manston during April, and on the 28th, their first targets were spotted. Over the next few days, a number of ships were attacked with mixed results, a 2,000 tonne vessel being one of the more prized examples that fell to the Blenheims.

But by the 9th May, aircraft losses had mounted significantly, and so the remaining six aircraft of the flight were sent back home and a temporary stop was put to the operation. It was at this point, that the now outdated Blenheim would finally be replaced with the Wellington, a new aircraft with its unique geodesic design was now appearing at the Norfolk site.

The month of May also saw the return of 90 Sqn, a unit that had been resident here at the outbreak of war with their Blenheims. This time they were not bringing twin engined models with them though, this time it was the Fortress I the mighty US four engined heavy, the B-17.

AMERICAN AIRCRAFT IN ROYAL AIR FORCE SERVICE 1939-1945: BOEING MODEL 299 FORTRESS.

A B-17 Fortress I, AN521 ‘WP-K’, of No. 90 Squadron taken at Hatfield, during an inspection of newly-arrived American aircraft by the Chief of the Air Staff and the US Air Attache. (© IWM CH 2873)

90 Squadron were trialling the use of the bomber, and whilst based at West Raynham, they also operated from RAF Great Massingham and RAF Bodney in an attempt to see if these grass airfields were suitable for the Fortress. However, it was quickly realised that such an operation with these models was not feasible and so they departed a month later, transferring out to RAF Polebrook, in Northamptonshire. Further tests revealed problems with the B-17’s guns at high altitude, the cold causing many to freeze and become inoperable. Within four months of arriving, the B-17s were sent packing, their use as an RAF bomber having been rejected.

In Part 3 we see more activity at West Raynham, and a daring raid by Blenheims in which no less than fifteen medals were awarded for action. We also see a return to attacks on the German fleet, an attack that would be met with very heavy resistance.

The full story can be read in Trail 21 – North Norfolk Part 2.

RAF West Raynham Trail 21 – Part 1.

From Sculthorpe in Trail 21, we travel a few miles south, just a stone’s throw to its sister station and another of Britain’s post-war relics. This site, closed as late as 1994, was then sold for housing development and light industrial use. With its founding in 1938, it was a long standing and also important post-war airfield, one that saw many units and aircraft types adorn its runways and buildings. In my last visit, the site was closed off and under development, so today we revisit the airfield and see what has become of it since then. As the gates are now open, we delve once more into the history of the former RAF West Raynham.

RAF West Raynham

West Raynham lies in the heart of Norfolk, west of the village that gave it its name, and five miles south-west of Fakenham. The entire site covers some 158 acres, and encompasses around 37,000 sq metres of buildings.

As a classic expansion period airfield (using garden city principles with squares and tree-lined avenues), it was built during the period 1937-39. As was common at that time, it had a number of neo-Georgian buildings, notably the Officers Mess and unmarried Officers’ quarters – the larger examples even having servants’ quarters built within. Airfields of this period had to pass a severe scrutiny from both early environmental and planning groups, and so were built with aesthetics, rather than functionality, in mind. The restrictions placed on new developments meant that these pre-war stations were far more ‘ornate’ in design than their wartime counterparts.

RAF West Raynham

The classic Officers’ mess, a neo-Georgian style building built with aesthetics in mind (2015).

Construction of the airfield was initially undertaken by the Allot Ltd company. It had two grass runways both of which were replaced later in May 1943 by hard  concrete and tarmac examples. The longest of these runways at 2,000 yds, lay north-east to south-west and the shorter at 1,400 yds directly east to west.

During its initial construction, four ‘C’ Type hangars were erected, two of which were allocated to the Ministry of Aircraft Production (MAP).  These hangars, were a mid 1930’s design which used reinforced concrete, and were commonly found on pre-war airfields, thus their dominating appearance became well known on the British landscape at that time. In close proximity to the hangars stood the Watch Office (with Fort) – another 1930’s design (built to drawing 207/36) it also utilised concrete as it was strong and in abundance at this time. Also found close by were the gunnery/training dome, a range of technical stores, workshops and numerous ancillary buildings as was common to airfields of this pre-war period.

C Type Hangar

One of the four hangars (2015). The newly installed solar panels can just be seen where the runways would have been.

The perimeter track was built with thirty-six heavy bomber design hardstands, and the accommodation area (which being non-dispersed was located on the airfield site) could house around 2,000 personnel. Following later developments the number of hardstands  were increased as was the accommodation area. At its peak, West Raynham could house around 3,000 personnel.

The site officially opened in May 1939, just prior to the outbreak of war, under the control of No. 2 (Bombing) Group whose headquarters had by now moved to RAF Wyton. Formed on March 20th 1936, the group was made up of five Wings: 70 (Upper Heyford), 79 (Watton), 81 (here at West Raynham), 82 (Wyton) and 83 (Wattisham). As a parent airfield West Raynham would use nearby Great Massingham as a satellite, with relief landing grounds at both Bircham Newton and North Pickenham. To deter marauding Luftwaffe bombers in the area, two decoy sites would also be used, one at Fulmodestone and the other at Gateley.

In May 1939, the first two squadrons arrived at West Raynham. Transferring across from Bicester were 101 Squadron and 90 Sqn, both flying with the twin engined Bristol Blenheim IV. On arrival though, it was found that the airfield was far from ready, and only with personnel carrying out the remaining work, did it finally become operational three days later.

The two squadrons soon took part in long distance flights over France. Inter mixed with these were tactical training exercises, with 101 Sqn acting as the enemy attacking ‘distant’ targets, these being ‘protected’ by other units. By August though, the situation on the continent had deteriorated considerably, and war seemed inevitable. As a result, and shortly after being sent to 5 A.T.S. Penrhos for training, both squadrons were quickly recalled to West Raynham and preparations began for war.

On 2nd September, mobilisation orders came through instructing the units to ‘Scatter’ aircraft. This national scheme was implemented to spread aircraft around alternative airfields, thus ‘thinning them out’ in case of an attack. Both units used a variety of airfields including: Bircham Newton, Brize Norton, Weston-on-the-Green and later Upwood, sending small groups of aircraft to each site.

In both units, staff vacancies were quickly filled with new recruits, and whilst both squadrons remained as training squadrons, they were nonetheless brought up to a war footing. Then in the middle of September, 90 Sqn were stood down once more, now awaiting official transfer from 2 Group to the 6 Group Training Pool.  Transferring out of West Raynham to their new home at Upwood, they left 101 Sqn the only active unit here.

101 Sqn was at the time led by Wing Commander J.H. Hargroves, who presided over twenty-two officers and 207 airmen. Between them, they would fly twenty-one Blenheim aircraft divided into two flights – ‘A’ and ‘B’.

In preparation for flights over France, the aircraft were given the Air Ministry (squadron) letter ‘N’. After being fitted with long range drop tanks, they had their engines boosted to provide the greater take off power needed for the additional weight they would now carry.

For the next three months though little happened, Britain had now entered the Phoney War. Initially alerts and false alarms came through thick and fast, crews being ready to respond at a moments notice.  However, nothing came of these alarms, and so the squadron was repeatedly ‘stood down’ from action. At Christmas, with no immediate threat pending, it was decided to grant four days leave to the majority of the squadron personnel, with many off site visiting family, the airfield all but shut down.

January 1940 brought little change, and even though still classed as a training unit, 101 Sqn remained at the ready to respond to action. To make the lull in action even worse, the cold weather now worsened and snow began to fall across the country. What training flights that were occurring were now hampered by the bad weather and cold winter air.  On several days West Raynham was classed as ‘unserviceable’, snow and a frozen surface preventing aircraft from taking off or landing. The poor weather lasted well into March with only sporadic flying taking place. With such poor conditions and inexperienced crews, training flights would ultimately result in some accidents,  the handful that did occur soon culminating in fatalities.

During this time it was decided to set up a new unit to take on the training role that 101 Sqn were currently performing. This would allow 101 to officially become an ‘operational’ squadron. To this end, 2 Group Target Towing Flight  (2 TTF) was formed  here at West Raynham, operating the Fairey Battle, Gloster Gladiator and the Avro Tutor. The relief to 101 Squadron however, would not be felt for some time, and it would be the middle of the year before they would be ready to take on the might of the Luftwaffe.

On the 7th, March 1940, a break in the weather allowed a number of crews from 101 Sqn to take part in an air firing exercise at Wainfleet Sands, but for one of those crews things would go very badly wrong.

RAF West Raynham

The Officer’s Mess in rather a sorry state. It is earmark for redevelopment (2015).

The Blenheim IV, ‘N.6165’ piloted by F.O. F.C Mottram with A/Sgt. A.E. Maudsley and Cpl. R. Hartland on board, crashed at Botesdale near to Diss. The pilot and observer were both killed in the accident whilst the wireless operator escaped with injuries. A second aircraft, a Fairey Battle also from 101 Squadron, also ran into difficulties that day. More fortunately for the crew of this aircraft though, it managed a forced landing with no further problems nor injuries to those on board.

During April another new training squadron was formed here at West Raynham, that of 76 Sqn, which was supposed to fly the Hampden. After being disbanded earlier that month at Upper Heyford, any thoughts of longevity were soon dismissed, when before any real organisation could take place, and for whatever reason, the squadron was disbanded once more. Its life at West Raynham lasting just four weeks.

As the weather improved so training flights gradually picked up again for those based at this Norfolk airfield, and by May operational sweeps over the North Sea had begun, with reconnaissance flights out looking for enemy shipping. But still 101 squadron failed to see any major action and so flights became routine.

By May 1940 the skies of southern England were beginning to hot up. With attacks on airfields signifying the start of the Luftwaffe’s campaign to destroy the RAF, West Raynham would not be immune.

Although these attacks were mainly targeted at airfields in the south, West Raynham would be visited on no less than twelve different occasions, the first of which was on 25th. Whilst little damage was done to the airfield, the war had nonetheless been brought home to those who were stationed here, it had become incredibly real at last.

In Part 2 a new Station Commander is due to arrive, but his determination to led by example leads to an ‘unfortunate incident’ meaning his arrival at West Raynham is prevented from happening. We also see attacks on the German Fleet and a new, heavy bomber arrives for trials.

The full story can be read in Trail 21 – North Norfolk Part 2.

Sgt. James Ward VC.- 75 (NZ) Sqn RAF Feltwell.

We have seen through the many ‘Heroic tales‘, acts of daring and valour that have astounded the average man in the street. Acts of heroism that were completed without forethought or consideration for personal safety, where the lives of fellow crewmen and their aircraft were put far beyond that of their own.

Some of these included flying an aircraft with astonishing injuries, staying with an aircraft until such times as all the crew have either left – or because they have been unable to leave – remaining at the controls to attempt a landing without help or hydraulics. There have even been cases of airmen exiting the aircraft to extinguish external fires whilst both at altitude and at speed. Indeed this is not a solitary occurrence; a number of airmen have been known to have performed such acts, some successfully others less so. But the fact that an airmen is willing to perform such an act of bravery, is in itself, incredible.

One such action occurred in July 1941 and was performed by 2nd Pilot Sgt. James Allen Ward (RNZAF) of 75 (NZ) Sqn, RAF Feltwell.

Sgt. James Allan Ward, 75 (NZ) Squadron RAF, standing in the cockpit of his Vickers Wellington Mark IC, L7818 ‘AA-V’, at Feltwell, Norfolk. (© IWM (CH 2963)

Sgt. Ward, the Son of Mr. Percy Harold Ward and Mrs. Ada May Ward, of Wanganui, Wellington, New Zealand was born on 14th June 1919, and was, following his training, posted to 75 (NZ) Sqn then at RAF Feltwell in Norfolk. The squadron were operating the new Vickers Wellington MK.Ic, or ‘Wimpey‘ as it was affectionately known, on a bombing mission to Munster in Germany.

Take off was at 23.10 on the night of July 7th 1941. On board (aircraft CNF.994/L7818) that night were: Canadian S/L. R. Widdowson (Pilot); Sgts. J. Ward (2nd Pilot); L.A. Lawton (Navigator); Mason (Wireless Op); Evans (Front Gunner) and A. Box (Rear Gunner), as part of a force of ten Wimpeys from Feltwell along with thirty-nine others from nearby bases.

The flight out was uneventful, with no interactions with either flak nor Luftwaffe night fighters. Over the target, bombs were released and several fires were seen to light, although German reports stated that little damage was done and no casualties were incurred.

The return leg took the formation over the Zuider Zee at which point the Wellington was strafed by canon fire from an Me 110 flying beneath it. As shells ripped though the fuselage, the rear gunner was injured in the foot but managed to return fire sending the attacker plummeting to Earth with heavy smoke pouring from the port engine.

Shortly after this, the Wellington’s wing, housing a fuel line damaged in the attack, itself caught fire and with the aircraft having a fabric covering, it was only a matter of time before it would also fall to Earth in a massive fireball.

With S/L Widdowson struggling to control the aircraft, which had had half its rudder shot away, its elevators severely damaged, hydraulics ruptured, flaps inoperable and bomb doors opened and damaged; a decision had to be made as to what to do next.

A bale out appeared to be the only safe and viable option. S/L. Widdowson gave the order and the crew began preparations to depart the stricken aircraft. Almost as a last minute attempt to save it, Widdowson instructed the crew to try and extinguish the fire, and they began ripping away the fabric covering the geodesic framework. Ward, grabbing a fire extinguisher, shot jets of agent through the hole toward the fire. At altitude and speed, the air stream was far too strong and the attempt had little effect on the burning engine.

At this point, and without attention to his own safety, Sgt. Ward decided to climb out and try to smother the fire with a canvas engine cover that had been used to raise S/L. Widdowson’s seat. Much to the dismay and protests of the other crewmen, Ward grabbed a parachute and attached a rope to himself and the Navigator, and began to climb out through the astrodome located between the wings in the fuselage’s ceiling. By punching holes in the aircraft’s fabric, he was able retain a foot and hand hold on to the aircraft, manoeuvring himself tight against the air frame toward the burning wing.

Once out onto the starboard wing, he approached the fire and pushed the canvas into the hole left by the flames. The fire burning furiously by now, was intense, and caused Sgt. Ward great pain forcing him to withdraw his hand several times before the slipstream finally caught the canvas tearing it from the hole and out into the dark night sky.

Being partially successful, there was little left for Sgt. Ward to do, so he began the arduous journey back toward the aircraft’s fuselage and its relative safety. By smothering the fire as he did, Ward’s attempts had made a difference, and shortly afterwards the fire extinguished itself enabling both the aircraft and crew to return to England safely making an emergency landing at RAF Newmarket Heath.

The Wellington with ‘hand-tholes’ after Sgt Ward tried to extinguish the fire.  (A) The hole caused by shell and, afterwards, by fire; (B) The Astro-Hatch through which Sergeant Ward, VC climbed; (1, 2 and 3) Holes kicked in the fabric by Sergeant Ward.(IWM CH3223)

Landing at 04:30, the Wellington came to a stop only after striking a fence on the airfield boundary, its brakes being totally unusable.

For his action, Sgt. James (Jimmy) Ward was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest honour for bravery and extraordinary courage; he was the first New Zealander to win such an award during the Second World War. S/L. Widdowson for his actions, was awarded an immediate D.F.C. whilst Sgt. Box, the D.F.M.

At the time of the incident Sgt. Ward was only 22 years of age, he would be given his own crew and would go on to complete ten missions in total before, on the eleventh, being shot down and killed in another Wellington of 75 (NZ) Sqn over Hamburg on September 15th 1941.

Sgt Ward’s death brought a severe blow to the crews of 75 (NZ) Sqn, who perhaps thinking him invincible, went on to perform with great pride and determination in the face of great adversity. With over 8,000 sorties flown, the highest of any squadron in 3 Group, came a high cost, 193 aircraft being lost, the second highest of any Bomber Command Squadron of the Second World War.

Sgt Ward’s body was recovered from the crash that killed him, and along with his three comrades was laid to rest in the Ohlsdorf Cemetery in Hamburg, CWCG Plot 5A. A1. 9.

The report of Sgt. Ward’s VC. (Auckland Library Heritage Collection : 13 August 1941 : Item ref # AWNS 19410813-23-1)

Sgt. Ward’s citation appeared in the London Gazette “No. 35238” on 5 August 1941 p. 4515 and reads:

“On the night of 7th July, 1941, Sergeant Ward was second pilot of a Wellington returning from an attack on Munster.

When flying over the Zuider Zee at 13,000 feet, the aircraft was attacked from beneath by a Messerschmitt which secured hits with cannon shell and incendiary bullets. The rear gunner was wounded in the foot but delivered a burst of fire which sent the enemy fighter down, apparently out of control.

Fire then broke out near the starboard engine and, fed by petrol from a split pipe, quickly gained an alarming hold and threatened to spread to the entire wing. The crew forced a hole in the fuselage and made strenuous efforts to reduce the fire with extinguishers, and even the coffee in their vacuum flasks, but without success. They were then warned to be ready to abandon the aircraft.

As a last resort, Sergeant Ward volunteered to make an attempt to smother the fire with an engine cover which happened to be in use as a cushion. At first he proposed to discard his parachute, to reduce wind resistance, but was finally persuaded to take it. A rope from the dingy was tied to him, though this was of little help and might have become a danger had he been blown off the aircraft. With the help of the navigator, he then climbed through the narrow astro-hatch and put on his parachute. The bomber was flying at a reduced speed but the wind pressure must have been sufficient to render the operation one of extreme difficulty.

Breaking the fabric to make hand and foot holds where necessary, and also taking advantage of existing holes in the fabric, Sergeant Ward succeeded in descending three feet to the wing and proceeding another three feet to a position behind the engine, despite the slipstream from the airscrew which nearly blew him off the wing. Lying in this precarious position, he smothered the fire in the wing fabric and tried to push the cover into the hole in the wing and on to the leaking pipe from which the fire came. As soon as he removed his hand, however, the terrific wind blew the cover out and when he tried again it was lost. Tired as he was, he was able with the navigator’s assistance, to make successfully the perilous journey back into the aircraft.

There was now no danger of fire spreading from the petrol pipe, as there was no fabric left nearby, and in due course it burnt itself out. When the aircraft was nearly home some petrol which had collected in the wing blazed up furiously but died down quite suddenly. A safe landing was then made despite the damage sustained by the aircraft.

The flight home had been made possible by the gallant action of Sergeant Ward in extinguishing the fire on the wing in circumstances of the greatest difficulty and at the risk of his life.”

Sources.

National Archives – AIR 27/645/34, AIR 27/645/33

Auckland War Memorial Museum Website.

B-17 Pilot 1st Lt.D. J. Gott and 2nd. Lt W. E. Metzger

War makes men do terrible things to their fellow mankind. But through all the horror and sometimes insurmountable odds, courage and bravery shine through. Two gallant young men both in the same B-17 were awarded the Medal of Honour for acts of extreme bravery in the face of certain death.

Born on 3 June  1923, Arnett. Oklahoma, Donald Joseph Gott, began his air force career at the local base in 1943. By the end of the first year he had achieved the rank of First Lieutenant in the US Army Air Corps. Posted with the 729th. Bomber Squadron, 452nd Bombardment Group to Deopham Green, Norfolk, England, he was to fly a B-17 (42-97904) ‘Lady Jeannette’ along with his crew and co-pilot  William E. Metzger.

Metzger was born February  9, 1922 – Lima, Ohio and by the time he was 22 he was a 2nd Lieutenant. He was to meet Gott at Deopham Green, Norfolk and together they would fly a number of missions over occupied Europe bombing strategic targets.

On the 9th November 1944, they took off with their crew on a mission that would take them into the German heartland to bomb the marshalling yards at Saarbrucken.

On this run, the aircraft, was badly hit by flak, three of the engines caught fire and were inoperable, the fires were so fierce that they were reaching the tail of the stricken aircraft.

Further fires within the fuselage started when flares were ignited, and this rapidly caught a hold. Hydraulic lines were severed and the liquid from within was jettisoned onto the burning fuselage.  With communication lines cut and unable to contact the crew, both Gott and Metzger had some difficult decisions to make. They had not yet reached the target, the aircraft still held its bomb load and they were deep into occupied territory.

The crew too had suffered badly at the hands of the anti-aircraft fire. The engineer was wounded in the leg and the radio operators  arm was severed below the elbow causing great pain and loss of blood. He would die very quickly if medical help was not found. Despite the quick thinking and application of  tourniquet by fellow crew members, he soon passed out and fell unconscious.

Gott and Metzger decided that jettisoning the injured radio operator  would not result in his receiving medical help and so they would drop the bombs and head for the nearest friendly territory where they could crash-land. Doing this, would risk not only the life of the operator, but that of the crew and themselves should the stricken aircraft explode.

Over the target, they released their bombs and flew alone toward allied territory. Flying low over the village of Hattonville, the aircraft was seen to swerve avoiding a church and homes. At this point, Metzger personally crawled through the aircraft and instructed the crew to bail out. Three chutes were seen by local people, two fell to earth and the third became entangled on the stabiliser and was trapped. A further three were seen moments later, all these escaped. Metzger decided to remain with Gott and try to land the aircraft with the radio operator on board. With only one working engine, Gott and Metzger brought the aircraft down through a series of tight turns and at only 100 feet from safety the aircraft banked and exploded. Crashing to earth it again suffered a second explosion and disintegrated killing all three crew members on board and the crew member still attached to the tail.

1st Lieutenant Gott and his co-pilot 2nd Lieutenant Metzger had shown great courage and determination to complete their mission, and to save their crew from certain death. They had shown the greatest of  valour in what was to be the final act of their short lives.

Both men were killed on that day, November 4th 1944 aged 21 and 22 respectively. They were both posthumously awarded the Medal of Honour on the 16th May 1945.

Gott’s remains were returned to the United States and he was buried at the Harmon Cemetery, in Harmon, Ellis County, Oklahoma, USA. Metzger, was returned to his home town and was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery, Lima, Ohio.

Along with Gott and Metzger, crew members who did not survive were:  T/Sgt Robert A, Dunlap and S/Sgt T.G. Herman B, Krimminger. The survivors were picked up by a a local field hospital and treated for their injuries: 2nd lt John A, Harland ; 2nd lt Joseph F, Harms ; S/Sgt B.T. James O, Fross ; S/Sgt R.W. William R, Robbins and T/Sg T.T. Russell W Gustafson.

A memorial now stands close to the site of the crash site.

metzger
2nd Lieutenant William Metzger
gott
1st Lieutenant Donald Gott

Sqn. Ldr. Edgar A. Good (RCAF)

On a recent visit to Houghton Hall in Norfolk, I came across a small church in the grounds, which held a number of graves belonging to those who had lived in the nearby village.

One of these was that of a pilot, 29 year old Squadron Leader, Edgar Andrew Good (s/n: C/18640), of 280 Squadron RAF Thornaby, North Yorkshire.

It turns out that Sqn. Ldr. Good was a Canadian, killed whilst undertaking an Air Sea Rescue (ASR) mission on 13th November 1943, whilst flying in a Vickers Warwick.

The Warwick was a Vickers Armstrong aircraft, issued to the squadron in October 1943. The aircraft was originally intended to be a bomber, built to meet specification B.1/35 it would be the largest twin-engined aircraft to serve during World War 2. It had a striking resemblance to the Wellington, utilising Barnes Wallis’s geodetic design. Models operating in the ASR role were capable of carrying Lindholme rescue gear and/or droppable lifeboats.

On 13th November 1943, three crews were briefed at Thornaby and ordered out to perform a search and rescue operation for a missing aircrew. Sqn. Ldr. Good departed at 16:40 and headed toward the Dutch coast where it was thought the aircraft had come down. After searching the area, nothing was seen and so the three aircraft began their return leg to RAF Thornaby across the North Sea.

On approaching the British coastline, the weather deteriorated significantly and the aircraft entered a thunderstorm. Two of the aircraft including Sqn. Ldr. Good’s Warwick (BV336) were struck by lightning, suffering damage to electronic equipment and loss of the radio. Severe turbulence and icing then caused further problems, making the Warwick difficult to control. Over land the weather failed to improve and control of the aircraft appears to have been lost by Sqn. Ldr. Good.

With no communication with the ground, the Warwick then entered a spin diving onto the ground at an area known as Sleights Moor, near Whitby in Yorkshire. There were no survivors.

The crew of Warwick BV336 were:

Squadron Leader Edgar Andrew Good, (pilot) s/n: C/18640
Flying Officer Willis Wylie Coons, (navigator) s/n: J/17250
Flying Officer Dennis Maurice Stewart, (wireless op. and air gunner) s/n: 115344
Flight Sgt. William Vernon Crockett, (wireless op. and air gunner) s/n: R/98771
Flight Sgt. Douglas Allan Payton, (wireless op. and air gunner) s/n: R/105266
Warrant Officer Henry George Richardson, (air gunner) s/n: 1377980

The second Warwick struck by lightning also entered a dive, but he pilot of this aircraft managed to regain control and return to Thornaby without further problems.

Although flying with the Canadian Air Force, Sqn. Ldr. Good was the Son of Nickolai Andreyev and Nina Andreyevna. After hod father died, his mother married Joseph Good (husband of Elaine Blair Good). The family eventually left Russia emigrating to Canada living in Montreal after becoming naturalised Canadians in 1922. After studying in both Canada and the US, Edgar then joined the RAF obtaining his wings in 1937. He was then sent to RAF Bircham Newton, where he would later return to and 280 Sqn.

The inscription on his headstone reads:

All that you hoped for, all you had, you gave to save mankind…”
Air Sea Rescue Service.

He is buried in Houghton (St. Martin) Churchyard (Houghton Hall).

Sqn. Ldr. Edgar Andrew Good

The grave of Squadron Leader, Good.

Sources:

Commonwealth War Graves Commission website.

Aviation-safety website.

RAF Downham Market (Part 2 – D-Day to the War’s End)

In Part 1 Downham was born, serving the Stirlings of Bomber Command before becoming part of Bennett’s Pathfinder Force. A large airfield, it was often busy and as the war progressed toward D-Day, preparations began for operations over the invasion area.

On June 3rd 1944 Lancaster ND841 ‘F2-D‘ piloted by F/O. George. A. Young (s/n: 134149) RAFVR 635 Squadron, was detailed to attack Calais as part of the preparations for the forthcoming D-Day invasion. There would be eight other aircraft from RAF Downham Market also detailed for the mission, and take off would be late that evening.

The mission as a whole would involve 127 Lancasters and 8 Mosquitoes of 1, 3 and 8 Groups and the targets would be the gun batteries at both Calais and Wimerereux. It was a  diversionary raid as part of Operation “Fortitude South“, the elaborate plan to fool the Germans into believing the invasion would occur in the Pas-de-Calais region.

At 28 minutes past midnight, F/O. Young lined the Lancaster up on the runway, opened the throttles and began the long run. As the Lancaster approached take off, it began to swing striking the roof of the B1 Hangar. In an uncontrollable state the aircraft crashed just outside the airfield killing all those on board. What was left of the aircraft was salvaged, and three of the crew buried in the local cemetery in Downham Market.

Downham Market Cemetery

F.Sgt. Stanley Wharton (RAFVR) 635 Sqn. One of seven Killed 4th June 1944.

Two months later, another pilot of 635 Sqn, also flying a Lancaster III, ND811, ‘F2-T’, Squadron Leader Ian Bazalgette, would be awarded the second of Downham’s Victoria Crosses.

On August 4th 1944, flying Lancaster ‘T’ for Tommy, on a daylight raid to mark the V1 storage depot at Trossy St. Maximin, the aircraft was hit by flak knocking out both starboard engines and setting the aircraft on fire. Bazalgette pressed on, marked the target and then instructed the crew to bail out. Two of the crew were so badly injured they could not do so, and so Bazalgette attempted a crash landing. Unfortunately on impact with the ground the aircraft exploded, killing all three remaining crew members on board.

For his bravery and sacrifice, Ian Bazalgette was also awarded the V.C., the highest honour for military personnel. The London Gazette, of 14th August 1945, announced the award, citing: “His heroic sacrifice marked the climax of a long career of operations against the enemy. He always chose the more dangerous and exacting roles. His courage and devotion to duty were beyond praise“.

During that same month, August 1944, another squadron would appear here at Downham. Joining 635 Sqn were 608 Sqn, who had previously been operating abroad. They were reformed here on August 1st that year, also joining Bennett’s elite group. Another Mosquito squadron, they bolstered the number of aircraft and personnel present here at Downham. Flying the Mosquito XX, XXV and eventually XVI, they remained at Downham for a year whereupon they were once more disbanded. Whilst operating these aircraft, 608 Sqn would fly 1,726 operational sorties all as part of Bennett’s Pathfinder Force.

608 Sqn’s primary role was to carry out night strikes as part of the Pathfinder Operations focusing on the German heartland. Targets included: Berlin, Frankfurt, Hanover, Essen, Stuttgart, Nuremberg, Hamburg, Emden and Kiel. Their first operational sortie from Downham was on the night of 5th/6th August 1944, when a single Mosquito took off and bombed Wanne-Eickel.

Then, a month later, on the night of 6th November 1944, twelve aircraft from 608 Sqn took off in a diversionary attack on targets at Gelsenkirchen. The idea was to draw defences away from a much larger force attacking both Gravenhorst and Koblenz. The plan was for 608 to begin their attack five minutes ahead of the other forces, a plan that went like clockwork.

The full story of Mosquito KB364, piloted by P.O. James McLean (26) and Sgt. Mervyn Lambert Tansley (21), appears in Heroic Tales, but this was to be their final, fatal flight.

On return, the aircraft careered into All Saints’ Church, Bawdeswell, some 30 miles north-east of the airfield, setting it alight. The impact was such that parts of the aircraft struck two other homes, causing extensive damage to both properties. The resultant fire took four hours to extinguish and included crews from other nearby airfields. In honour of the two airmen, a plaque manufactured from part of the Mosquito has been mounted on the church wall inside the building.

The Christmas period of 1944 was a busy one for Downham and for the FIDO operators. With freezing fog, snow and general poor weather causing many problems for those on the continent and for those on British soil attempting to take off, FIDO crews were going to be busy. FIDO primarily designed as a landing aid, also permitted take offs during poor visibility. However, getting to the runway was a challenge in itself. Often with visibility down to just feet, ground staff would line the perimeter tracks with torches to guide each aircraft safely along. Anyone who made a mistake took the risk of running off the perimeter track, sinking into the ground along side or worse.

By the dawn of 1945 the war in Europe was all but over. Operations began to focus on troop concentrations, possible German escape routes and harbours. Both 635 and 608 Sqns continued operational flying until the war’s end. In August and early September these last two operational squadrons at Downham Market were disbanded, 608 Sqn on August 24th and 635 Sqn on September 1st. This left Downham devoid of all front line units.

last raid - Kiel canal ground & air crew photo 2 May 1945 at Downham Market found by Brian Emsley, Welwyn G, father Edward Emsley far left httpwww.bbc.co.uknewseducation-32532153

A recently discovered photograph showing a D.H. Mosquito of Downham Market, taken on May 2nd 1945. It was taken just prior to the last mission undertaken by RAF aircraft on an attack on the Kiel Canal. It shows Ground & Aircrew next to their Mosquito and ‘Cookie’. It was found by Brian Emsley,  his father Edward Emsley is far left.*

With peace now settling across Europe, focus turned to returning personnel back to ‘Civvy street’. Within 8 Group, a new scheme was set up, and personnel were encouraged to make use of it. Across the range of Pathfinder stations, EVT (Educational and Vocational Training) was introduced. These classes were designed to give personnel the much needed skills in a range of civilian areas, to help them integrate back into civil life. Classes were broad and included a range of domestic activities such as: landscape gardening, cookery, music and carpentry. Some of these such as ‘domestic science’ were designed with the WAAFs in mind, whilst others were geared more (but not exclusively) toward the men.

"CIVVY STREET COURSE" IN R.A.F. PATHFINDER GROUP

1945 – Landscape and floral gardening are subjects given in the E.V.T. classes at Downham Market. Leading Aircraftman Arthur Pickersgill [centre] is now the station instructor. (IWM CH16028)

RAF Downham Market finally closed in 1946, but in 1948 the site was used for night Helicopter flight trials by BEA – the civil air company – transporting mail using Sikorsky S-51 Helicopters. This was a short lived venture but was by the end, considered a very successful companion to the day times routes recently started between Peterborough and a number of towns between Kings Lynn and Norwich. The venture included installing a flashing Sodium Beacon at Downham Market, its precise location on the airfield is not known and it may well have been a mobile unit*4.

Eventually in 1957, the land was sold off. The site was returned to agriculture but the airfield’s runways remained intact. In the 1970s, the Downham Market by-pass was built and the concrete runways were an ideal source of local hardcore. All three were subsequently removed along with large sections of the perimeter track leaving a mere road’s width for the larger part. Many of the buildings were at this time left, and small businesses soon took them over. One of these, a kitchen sales shop, now houses a small display relating to the history of the airfield.

At ground level, the discerning eye and a general appreciation of airfield structure and layout, suggest a presence of something more interesting. Huts, whilst in very poor condition, poke through overgrown trees and bushes, and provide shelter and storage facilities for local industry. The condition of windows and brickwork suggest that time is gradually running out for this once thriving airfield, unless other businesses move in.

The main runway ran east – west and for many years a small section of this remained for the farmers use. It was this runway that utilised FIDO, the storage area (at the far end) now taken over by the car dealership.

Downham Market Runway remains

The remnants of the main runway. Sadly this has now also been removed. It was this runway that utilised FIDO.

The remaining two runways were both removed for the hardcore. The western perimeter track remains in part width, from the threshold of the second runway virtually to the top to the threshold of the northern end of the third runway. However, the A10 road now dissects this and the uppermost part has been removed also. A new track (a public track) has been built for the farmer, this cuts across the northern end of the airfield and it is here that the (flooded) Battle Headquarters can be found. Now part of a ditch, its roof forms a bridge into one of the adjoining fields, it can only be found with careful searches of this ditch!

Battle Headquarters

A flooded Battle Headquarters. Several rooms exist below ground level, but these are all flooded, some said to be very deep.

Virtually the entire length of the northern part of the peri track can be walked round to the eastern end of the main runway. Part way along, another track leads off to the former bomb store, this is private the store now a wooded area. Also along here is the ultra heavy fusing point, a shed that is now used by the local farmer. At the far end of the peri track is where the accommodation area was constructed for the FIDO installers using Laing Hutting. Across the road can be seen the car dealership built on what was the FIDO installation. None of the original buildings remain here, but the peri track widens out to full width again at this point and heads east back toward the technical area.

Across the road from the technical area is the camp entrance and Bexwell, a small collection of houses and a church. Here a small memorial is placed telling the stories of the two heroic and brave crew members Aaron and Bazalgette. This road is the old road that led to all the accommodation areas. The WAAF site being the first and one of only two sites left with buildings still in place.

RAF Downham Market

Buildings on the WAAF site.

The other sites here include the Communal Site 1, Dormitory Site 1 (A), Sick Quarters, Dormitory Sites No. 2 (B), 3 (C), 4 (K) and 5 (J). Another track leads off to a sewage works. The road eventually joins the main A10. Across from here is the Communal Site 2, the second site with buildings still in use, and currently used by an engineering firm. A First World War memorial is also located here oddly hidden away amongst the bushes. Alongside these buildings are a pathway that leads to the second sewage treatment works.  This site can also be accessed by public footpath from the main road into Downham itself.

looking back to accomodation area

The sewage site. Through the trees you can see the remains of Communal Site 2.

Downham Market is an airfield that has a remarkable history, the dedication and bravery of the crews being second to none. What is left of this historic site is continually under threat, decay and dilapidation rapidly taking over.

The town is regularly overflown by F-35s from Marham, but when I was first here, two Tornadoes flew over whilst I was reading the dedications to both Bazalgette and Aaron. A fitting tribute not only to the two brave pilots, but all the crews that served here and to a station originally built to serve as a satellite for the very same airfield.

In 2015, a £170m regeneration plan was announced, perhaps signalling the end of Downham Market airfield for good (see here) – further details of these plans were to be released in the early part of 2016, but the funding for the scheme seemed to have been withdrawn in January 2020. No more seems to have been said about this venture, but more recently, development work for a fast-food outlet and shop was started alongside the western perimeter track, hopefully this won’t lead to further loss.

In April 2017 a project was launched to raise money for a seven slab memorial to be built close to the site of the former Dormitory Site 1, adjacent to the A10 road. The project hoped to raise in the region of £250,000 to cover the cost of the memorial and provide a lasting memory of those who flew and died whilst serving at RAF Downham Market. The full story and pictures can be accessed on the Eastern Daily Press website. There are more details and a link to the donations page on the RAF Downham Market website. I have been unable to confirm latest details and it may be another victim to the pandemic of 2020/21, only time will tell.

Trail 7 next leaves Downham Market heading east towards Norwich, stopping off at RAF Marham. On the way, we pass through the Norfolk countryside and a secret that shall no doubt, forever remain just that.

Sources and further reading (Downham Market).

* Photo published by the BBC 3/5/2015.

Technical information regarding the site was obtained from official drawings 50/W/117/42 and 50/W/116/42 courtesy of RAF Museum Hendon.

*1 National Archives AIR 27/1350

*2 National Archives AIR 27/1352/5

*3 National Archives AIR 27/2155/1, AIR 27/381/5

*4 Woodley, C. “The History Of British European Airways” Pen & Sword, 2006

The RAF’s pathfinder group, 635 squadron, flew daring missions in Lancasters, and a site dedicated to the crew and personnel of the squadron can be found on the RAF pathfinders archive website. A superb collection of photographs and personal accounts bring their memories alive.

The full Trail appears in Trail 7.

RAF Downham Market (Part 1 – The beginning)

In Trail 7, we visited the northern part of Norfolk, not far from the coast where it borders Cambridgeshire to the west and the North Sea to the north and east. In this part of the trail we visit a site that was once one of Norfolk’s most prestigious airfields, where not one, but two VCs were awarded to airmen of the RAF.

Not far from RAF Marham, we return to this once busy airfield to see what is left and take another look at the incredible history that was RAF Downham Market.

RAF Downham Market (Bexwell)

Located in the corner of the A10 and A1122, 10 miles south of Kings Lynn and and 15 miles north east of Ely, RAF Downham Market (known locally as Bexwell) was only open for four years. Yet considering its relatively short life, it created for itself a unique history that was, and remains, unprecedented in military history.

Built by W. & C. French Ltd., it was primarily a bomber station serving initially with 2 Group before transferring to 3 Group and then to 8 PFF (Pathfinder) Group, Bomber Command. Opened as a satellite station to RAF Marham, it eventually became an airfield in its own right, achieving this status on 3rd March 1944, when it became a parent station itself.

RAF Downham Market

One of the several buildings surviving at Downham Market.

Downham opened in 1942 as a bomber station, a role it performed for the duration of the Second World War. To achieve this, it would require substantial runways and a number of dispersed accommodation sites. As a classic Class ‘A’ airfield, it was spread over a large area incorporating two main sites, the main airfield to the north and the accommodation to the south. It was equipped to accommodate 1,719 male and 326 female personnel at its peak. A network of small roads would link all these dispersed sites together.

Downham would have three concrete runways the main being 1,900 yards long running east-west, whilst the second and third ran north-west to south-east and north-east to south-west, each 1,400 yds long. The classic ‘A’ formed by these runways, was linked by a perimeter track with 36 original pan style hardstands. At its peak, Downham boasted seven hangers, six ‘T2’ and one ‘B1’ which replaced two of the hardstands reducing the number to 34. None of these hangars survive here today. It had the usual bomb store (to the north east), technical area (south side) and eight accommodation areas spread well to the south and south west. As with all these Class ‘A’ stations, the two areas were separated by a public road, the ‘airfield’ to the north and accommodation to the south.

Today, little remains of the actual airfield site, the runways having been removed some considerable time ago. However, on the technical site there are a number of buildings still remaining, and in the accommodation areas further buildings also exist. All of these are either used by local industry or local farmers.

On opening, Downham received its first residents, the Stirling MK.Is of 218 (Gold Coast) Squadron. Arriving on the 8th July 1942, they would retain these aircraft until February 1943, when the new updated Stirling MK.III was brought into squadron service. 218 Sqn had a history that went back to the First World War; disbanded in 1919 they had been reborn in 1936, and were posted to France where their Fairey Battles were decimated by the superior fighters of the Luftwaffe. In November 1940, prior to arriving here at Downham, the squadron joined 3 Group, it remained operational with this Group for the remainder of the war.

On July 6th, they began preparing for their move to Downham, aircraft were stood down and no operational flying took place. On the morning of the 7th, thirteen Stirlings departed RAF Marham, completing the 10 mile straight line flight they arrived at Downham fifteen minutes later. By midnight, the entire squadron had transferred over, and crews were settling into their new quarters. Over the next few days air tests, fighter affiliations and cross country flying were the order of the day, the first operational flight not taking place until the 12th. In Stirling ‘HA-N’ was P.O. Farquharson and in ‘HA-R’ was Sgt. Hartley. A ‘gardening’ mission, only two crews were assigned and briefed but records show that “The vegetables were planted in the allotted positions. 18,000lb of seed were planted during this effort“*1. With that, Downham Market had now entered the war.

Over the next few weeks operations began to build, and targets moved into Germany itself. Lubeck, Vegesack, Duisberg, Hamburg and Saarbrucken were all on the initial list of operations. Apart from early returners due to ice or poor weather, all operations were considered successful and bombing was ‘accurate’.

On 29th July, a royal party visited RAF Downham Market to see how the crews were settling in at the new station. Led by Air Vice Marshall HRH The Duke of Kent, and accompanied by Sir Louis Grieg KBE CBO (ret),  the party were given an official tour of the airfield by Wing Commander P. D. Holder DFC – the Station Commander. After talking to a number of ground crews and watching Stirlings being bombed up, the Royal party then sampled the delights of the officers mess before departing the airfield.

In February 1943, 218 began replacing their Stirling MK.Is with the upgraded MK.IIIs, the last model of the Stirling bomber before they were relegated to other duties. By June, the last of the MK.Is were gone. Although fitted with better engines, the MK.III still remained limited by both its short wingspan and poorly designed bomb-bay.

In the following month a major decision was made to install the still experimental FIDO fog dispersal system here at Downham Market. With RAF Graveley only just having hers installed, the benefits of this system were by now bearing fruits, but despite this, only fifteen British airfields were to have the system installed. FIDO used oil burnt through a series of pipes set alongside the runway. These burners were supplied from large storage tanks, which in Downham’s case, were located to the south-east just off the airfield site. Each tank was filled by road from Kings Lynn, five tankers carrying out two runs each to complete the fill. Oil from these tanks, was then fed into the system – which was installed along the main east-west runway – by large pumps. Once lit, the burners could clear extensive fog or mist in a relatively quick time. The main storage tank site is today a car dealership, all signs of the network of pipes having since been removed.

Downham’s FIDO installation was slow at first, and only covered the initial touchdown area and the first 700 yards of the main east-west runway. A number of burner types were fitted at Downham over a period of time, starting with the MK.III or Haigill burner. These were in turn were replaced y the MK.IV and eventually, when labour became more available, the MK.V which was a sturdier, longer lasting burner capable of withstanding much heavier use.  It wouldn’t be until late 1943/44 that a longer section of the system was installed, now extending to 1,362 yds, almost the entire length of the main runway. The problem with FIDO was always where runways crossed, and here the pipes had to be placed below ground level. Along side the runway they were above ground, and with difficulty in seeing, some aircraft did manage to damage the piping on more than one occasion. With experimental lighting and landings used in the autumn of 1943, the first use of the system was on the night of December 16th/17th that year, when a large number of aircraft returning from Berlin were diverted to Downham due to their own bases being fog bound.

Over 35 aircraft landed at Downham that night, the toll on crews had FIDO not been in existence would certainly have been considerably higher than the terrible price that had already been paid on that disastrous night over Berlin. FIDO with all its counter arguments, had proved its worth in one fell swoop.

The Short Stirling, the first of the heavies for Bomber Command, was liked by many crews, but its short-comings were to become apparent all too soon. One of its problems was its enormous height, created through its huge and weak, undercarriage, which sometimes made landings difficult. Another recurring problem was a significant swing to port when taking off, combine the two features, and you have a difficult aeroplane to control at the best of times, let alone when badly damaged or in very poor weather.

One of the first casualties at Downham occurred on the morning of May 14th 1943, when Stirling ‘BF480’ HA-I piloted by Sgt. W. Carney, swung on touchdown careering off the runway into the Watch Office. No injuries were sustained by those onboard, but two other crewmen on the ground, who had previously landed, were killed in the accident. Coincidentally, another 218 Sqn Stirling, ‘EF367’, HA-G had a similar landing away at RAF Chedburgh at the same time on the same night. Onboard that aircraft there were an American and a New Zealander, all but two of the crewmen were killed, the others  escaping with injuries.

With plans for the invasion of occupied Europe well in hand by mid 1943, movements across Britain were starting to take place. At Downham a number of hangars were used to store Horsa gliders (hence the large number on site) ready for the invasion the following year. Between April 1943 and March 1944 the airfield was awash with stored examples. Accompanying the gliders were No. 14 Heavy Glider Maintenance Section, who maintained and prepared the gliders ready for when they were needed.

In the August 1943, an element of 218 Sqn was extracted to create a new squadron, 623 Sqn, using the MK.III Stirlings already on site. On the very day they were formed, 10th August 1943, four crews were briefed for operations, the target Nuremberg. Unfortunately, once over the target, crews had difficulty in distinguishing any relevant ground detail, and as a result, bombs were scattered over a wide area and the operation was largely unsuccessful. With little opposition all aircraft returned to Downham safely.

RAF Downham Market

One of the many huts that were left on the airfield.

However, two days after this on the night of August 12th /13th 1943, it was a different matter. It was whilst flying a 218 Sqn Stirling over Turin, that Flight Sergeant Arthur Louis Aaron, would suffer bullet strikes to his head that would break his jaw and tear away a large part of his face. Further bullets damaged his lung and right arm rendering it useless. Aaron still fought on though, despite his severe injuries, managing to assist the bomb-aimer in flying the stricken Stirling away from the enemy. Unable to speak, he communicated instructions to his bomb-aimer by writing with his left hand. Aaron attempted on four occasions to land the plane, but with failing strength, he was persuaded to vacate the cockpit; enabling the bomb-aimer to complete the belly landing on the fifth attempt. Aaron later died from exhaustion, the consequence of his determination and unparalleled allegiance to his crew, his aircraft and his duty. Aaron was the first of two pilots to receive the Victoria Cross whilst at Downham Market – both for extreme bravery in the face of the enemy.

The new squadron 623 Sqn, like many other squadrons however, was to be a short lived one. With high demand for Stirlings in the Conversion Units, it was decided to utilise the aircraft of 623 Sqn for this role, and on December 6th 1943 the unit was officially disbanded. Some crews returned to 218 Sqn but many others were posted out to new units. Flying of a total of 150 sorties in just four months, the squadron would lose ten aircraft, a loss rate of almost 7%.

The void left by 623 Sqn would be soon filled though. Just four days later another unit would transfer in, that of 214 (Federated Malay States) Sqn from RAF Chedburgh also a Stirling MK.III unit. For the majority of December, 214 Sqn would carry out ‘gardening’ missions, dropping mines designated ‘Nectarines‘ or ‘Cinnamon‘. Other operations would see bombs dropped on ‘Special Targets‘ although the Operational Records don’t specify the identity of these targets. 214 Sqn as with 623 Sqn, would be another of these short stay units, on January 17th 1944 they would transfer to RAF Sculthorpe and 100 Group, for RCM (electronic warfare) duties and a new aircraft, the B-17 Flying Fortress or Fortress I. As crews carried out circuits, lectures and training at Sculthorpe, the remainder of the squadron continued operations from Downham. By the 24th January though, all personnel had transferred over and Downham Market was far behind them.

In March 1944, Downham’s long standing unit 218 Sqn was finally ordered out, and on the 7th the entire squadron departed, the operations books simply stating: “218 Sqn moved from Downham Market to Woolfox Lodge by road and air today“. *2 Once at Woolfox Lodge, they would begin disposing of their Stirlings to take on the new heavy bomber – the Avro Lancaster.

The dust wasn’t allowed to settle at Downham however, and before long more personnel and a new Squadron would arrive, ready to fill the skies of Norfolk. This was no ordinary squadron though. With concerns about the poor quality of bombing and the lack of accuracy, it was decided to form a new Group that went much against the wishes of Arthur Harris. Seen as ‘elitist’, Harris vehemently disagreed with the new Group and fought his corner bravely. But with little choice in the matter and lacking his own high level support, he eventually succumbed to the Air Ministry’s demands, putting in command the Australian Group Captain Donald C.T Bennett, CB, CBE, DSO.

The new group would be called 8 Group (PFF) ‘The Pathfinders’, and was designed to use the cream of Bomber Command crews whose record for bombing had been excellent. Aircraft from the Group were to fly ahead of the main bomber force and ‘mark’ the target by various means – coloured flares being the primary and main method. In principle it worked well, but as records show, it was not without its own difficulties or setbacks.

Bennett, an aggressive pilot who didn’t suffer fools gladly, quickly won the admiration of his crews. He was also highly admired by Harris, who once described him as the the “most efficient airman” he had ever met; Harris considered Bennett perfect for the role. In appointing Bennett, Harris dismissed all other possible candidates including Air Chief Marshall Basil Embry, the Air Ministry’s most likely favourite.

The Pathfinders were officially formed on 15th August 1942, with 8 Group coming into official formation in January 1943. With the arrival of the new Squadron, 635 Sqn, Downham would now be playing its part in this role. This change would also mean a change in aircraft type at this Norfolk airfield, out went the now relegated Stirlings and in came Avro’s remarkable four engined heavy, the Lancaster MK.III.

RAF Downham Market

The remains of the Technical site looking toward the airfield.

635 Sqn was created under the command of Wing Commander Alan George Seymour Cousens on March 20th 1944. Using ‘C’ Flight from RAF Graveley’s 35 Sqn and ‘C’ Flight from RAF Bourn’s 97 Sqn. A total of eight aircraft and crews from each flight immediately began the move to Downham. At 09:15 the first of the road crews arrived from Bourn, with further sporadic arrivals until 11:00. The first aircraft to arrive touched down at 12:00, and within the next 20 minutes all aircraft were safely on the ground. Graveley crews began arriving soon after this, their first aircraft, along with a ground party, arriving at 15:05.

The new squadron consisted of 36 Officers, 120 NCOs and 200 ‘other ranks’. They were accommodated in Site ‘J’ whilst 20 NCOs and 40 armourers were accommodated in site ‘B’. A small number of officers were put up in the Rectory just outside the main gate of the airfield*3.

Shortly after the crews had landed, they were quickly briefed for an operation to attack Munich, but by the time the aircraft were prepared and bombs loaded, the operation was cancelled, the crews were then given the chance to settle in to their new homes.

635 Sqn would continue to use the Mk.III Lancaster for the next four months, replacing it with the Lancaster MK.VI  from March onward. This was an unusual model of the famous aircraft as it had neither a nose nor mid-upper turret, instead it was crammed with electronic radar jamming devices. Also replacing the normal three-bladed propellers were four bladed examples, aiming to improve the aircraft’s performance.

A growth in aircraft numbers and the development of Pathfinder methods soon led to a new branch of the Group, the Light Night Striking Force (LNSF) equipped with de Havilland’s ‘Wooden Wonder‘ the Mosquito.  In response to this, 571 Sqn, a new light bomber squadron equipped with the Mosquito XVI, was born here at Downham on April 5th 1944, barely two weeks after 635 Sqn themselves arrived. As a temporary measure it was decided that on April 10th, the squadron would be reduced to one Flight instead of two leaving eight aircraft plus a ‘spare’ at Downham whilst the remainder transferred to RAF Graveley. The idea behind the move was two-fold, firstly to bolster the expansion of 105 Sqn at Graveley, and secondly, to provide experience for the ground crews on the Mosquito.

The move went well, but on the 17th, a new order would come through that would change Downham yet again.

Movement order 21 required the entire 571 squadron to transfer to RAF Oakington, effective by 24th April. With that, preparations began and the advanced party moved from Downham on the 22nd followed by the rear party on the 24th. The entire squadron including the Graveley detachment were, by the end of the day, now at Oakington. Due to the move, there were no operations flown by the squadron from Downham Market during this short period of their history.

This departure left 635 Sqn as the only operational squadron at Downham Market. Whilst somewhat quieter, it is was not to be all plane sailing.

In Part 2, we see how Downham takes part in D-Day, the end of the war approaches but operations continue and Downham remains busy. After the war, the airfield is used for other purposes, and eventually closes. We then see what remains today and ask what does the future hold?

The full Trail appears in Trail 7.