RAF Swanton Morley – Small but rich in history.

In this Trail, we return to Norfolk and take in three former airfields each of notable historical value. Our first is probably better known as an Army barracks than it is an RAF airfield, but, for the duration of the Second World War, it would be home to a number of different aircraft types and to a range of international crews. Amongst the many residents here would be those from Poland, the Netherlands, Australia and New Zealand. We start our journey at the former RAF Swanton Morley.

RAF Swanton Morley

Following the end of hostilities in 1918, Britain’s defences and in particular the RAF, were cut back dramatically. From around 250,000 personnel (the worlds largest air force) to just under 30,000 by the early 1920s, the reductions were both severe and widespread. Political in-fighting between the three armed forces and the Government had seen the RAF lose out significantly, and under the terms of the ‘Ten year Rule’, expansion was prevented, and so little could be done to redress the declining situation.

During the 1930s, world developments (and in particular those in Germany) raised the threat of yet another war, at which point the Government realised that Britain’s defences were now totally inadequate and in dire need of redevelopment and expansion.

Their response was a series of expansion ‘schemes’  which would not only reshape the organisation of the RAF, but would cater for the huge increase in numbers of personnel that would be required to raise an adequate fighting force .

Considered lacking in direction by many, these early schemes surprisingly paid little attention to future needs, and so no real provision was made for supporting aspects such as training, maintenance or supply.

Scheme A, approved in July 1934, would set the bench mark at 84 home-based squadrons, a figure that was still woefully inadequate compared to the might that was building up across the channel. Each scheme would build on and replace the former, taking into account layout, new developments and the materials available – but all under the monetary restrictions of the 1930’s depression.

By the time war came, Scheme ‘M’ had been implemented (November 7th 1938), which called for 163 home based squadrons involving 2,500 aircraft for Britain’s home defence. It was under this scheme that Swanton Morley would be built.*1.

Initially designed as a fighter station, construction began in 1939, and one of the criteria for this scheme was to include type ‘C’ hangars. However, being incomplete by the outbreak of war, it was caught in the transition period between temporary and permanent aircraft storage. The ‘C’ types were cancelled in favour of three ‘J’ types, only one of which was actually built – this left Swanton Morley with considerably less hangar space than was actually required. Unfinished, the airfield opened on September 17th 1940 under the ownership of No. 2 Group Bomber Command.

As war broke out, a small detachment of 107 Squadron Blenheim IVs were based here. 107 Sqn were widely spread with other detachments at: Lossiemouth, Newmarket, Hunsdon, Horsham St. Faith and Ipswich, whilst the main squadron was based at RAF Wattisham. As part of 83 Wing, 107 would be joined by a further detachment from 110 Sqn the following month, also bringing the twin-engined Blenheim IV.

It was a No. 2 group aircraft that famously made the first sortie over the German frontier on the very day war broke out, and then on the second day, Monday September 4th 1939, a flight of four 107 Sqn aircraft and one 110 Sqn all from RAF Wattisham, dropped the first salvo of bombs on German ships at Wilhelmshaven . It was from one of these aircraft (Blenheim IV ‘N6240’) that Observer, Sergeant George Booth, and AC1 L. J. Slattery would become the first British Prisoners of War, captured when their Blenheim was shot down by German defences. None of the five aircraft returned, a rather disastrous start to the war for the RAF.*2

Work continued at Swanton Morley throughout the next two to three years, and eventually accommodation blocks were raised, hard perimeter tracks laid and four T2 hangars erected. Around twenty hardstands were created although many aircraft were still dispersed on the grassed areas around the technical site. A bomb store was developed to the south, and lighting added to the three runways, but despite of all the improvements, upgrades and developments, it was felt Swanton Morley did not warrant having any hard runways and so they continued to remain as grass.

It wasn’t until the end of October 1940, that Swanton Morley would have its own squadron of aircraft, 105 Squadron arrived bringing their Blenheim IVs to compliment those of 107 Sqn and 110 Sqn. With two detachments at Lossiemouth and Luqa (Malta), 105 would take part in anti-shipping sorties and attacks on targets in the low countries. A successful unit they swapped these for the Mosquito IV in November 1941, becoming the first operational squadron to receive these highly manoeuvrable aircraft, taking them to nearby Horsham St. Faith in the following month.

ROYAL AIR FORCE BOMBER COMMAND, 1939-1941.

A Blenheim of 105 Squadron passing over a fiercely burning enemy merchant vessel (© IWM (C 1940)

One of Swanton Morley’s earliest casualties was a 105 squadron aircraft, piloted by F/O. D. Murray DFC with Sgt’s C. Gavin and T. Robson. The aircraft, Blenheim IV ‘T1890’, was brought down over Brussels with the loss of all three crew members.

It was during August of 1941, that the first of many units would arrive – No. 152 Squadron. Like so many other squadrons around the country, their stay was to be short-lived taking their Spitfire IIAs to Coltishall the following December.

Coinciding with 105’s departure, was 226 Squadron’s arrival. At the end of December 1941, 226 Sqn would bring a new twin-engined aircraft to the grounds of Swanton Morley, the Douglas Boston. The Mk III was proving to be a formidable medium bomber and night-fighter, featuring improved armour, larger fuel tanks and its two Wright Twin Cyclone engines providing 1,600hp each. 226 Sqn were to later replace the MKIIIs with the MKIIIAs in January 1943 under the lend-lease agreement and then very shortly afterwards, with the B-25 Mitchell II. 226 Sqn operated these aircraft for almost a year at Swanton Morley before moving on to Hartford Bridge and the continent in 1944, thus becoming Swanton Morley’s longest standing squadron.

It was with 226 Squadron that the United States would make its mark on the war. On June 29th 1942, with both Eisenhower and Churchill present, twelve RAF Boston IIIs were sent to bomb the Marshalling yards at Hazebrouck, one of these aircraft (AL743) was flown by an all American crew. A rather ‘unofficial’ entry into the conflict, it was made more formal on Independence day, July 4th 1942 when six U.S. crews joined 226 Squadron in a low-level attack against Luftwaffe airfields in Holland. Twelve RAF aircraft took off a few minutes after 07:00 hrs and flew low and fast over the North Sea toward Holland. After splitting up to attack their designated targets, one group encountered severe flak and was badly beaten, one aircraft crashing whilst another had an engine knocked out. Before the pilot could regain control, the aircraft, Boston AL750, scraped the ground coming remarkably close to a complete disaster. However, the pilot Major Charles Kegelman, managed to regain control and nurse the stricken aircraft back to Swanton Morley. Of the twelve Bostons sent out, two U.S. and one RAF crewed aircraft failed to return. A baptism of fire that resulted in a 30% loss of the U.S. Air Force contingency. For their bravery, three DFCs and one DSC were awarded to the U.S. crews. Whilst not the first U.S. involvement nor their first casualties of the war, their actions did officially bring the United States into the European conflict.

Sergeant Bennie Cunningham, Technical-Sergeant Robert Golay, Major Charles C Kegelman and Lieutenant Randall Dorton in front of a Boston bomber. (Roger Freeman Collection IWM)

1943 would go on to prove to be an eventful year for Swanton Morley. With the Allied invasions plans taking shape, a new force was needed to support those destined to take to the Normandy beaches. The creation of the Second Tactical Air Force (TAF) in November 1943, was designed to meet that challenge and with it came changes at Swanton Morley.

Ownership now passed from Bomber Command to the Second TAF, and many units that would operate from here were part of that force. Following a relatively short stay by 88 Squadron (30th March 1943 – 19th August 1943) flying both the Boston III and IIIA, No. 305 (Weilkopolski) Squadron would arrive bringing the first Polish crews to Swanton Morley. Being the fourth and final Polish bomber squadron to be formed, they arrived in early September bringing Wellington MK Xs with them. Whilst serving in Bomber Command, the Polish had amassed some 1,117 sorties in which they had lost 136 brave young men as either killed or captured.

After arrival here, 305 Sqn changed their Wellingtons for Mitchell IIs and in line with the Second TAF objectives, began attacking targets around the Cap Griz Nez region. Being daylight operations, this was something new for the Polish crews, but one they relished and carried out well. In November after only being at Swanton Morley for two months, the Polish crews left leaving 226 Sqn with only a small detachment of 98 Squadron Mitchells for company.

At the end of 1943, three days after Christmas, No. 3 Squadron arrived bringing  a new breed of aircraft with them – the single-engined Typhoon IB, which they kept at Swanton Morley until February 14th 1944. No. 3 Sqn had been one of three founder squadrons of the Royal Flying Corp in 1912 and they remain one of the few squadrons to retain an active role today, flying the aircraft’s namesake, the modern Eurofighter Typhoon.

Whilst here at Swanton Morley, No. 3 Sqn carried out duties that the ill-fated Hawker Typhoon performed well at, low-level ground attack and anti-shipping roles. Dogged by development problems – engines fires and deadly levels of Carbon Monoxide in the cockpit – the Typhoons suffered terrible problems throughout their wartime service, subsequently virtually every model was scrapped at the end of war.

February 1944 was all change again at Swanton Morley. A detachment of 107 Squadron would return after a couple of years absence, and with their arrival came the departure of 226 Sqn after just over two years of being at Swanton. On the thirteenth of that month, they left for Hartford Bridge in Hampshire, in preparations for the Allied invasion at Normandy.

In the two months that followed, Swanton Morley began its wind down, a move signified by a number of short stay units. Each of these would however bring a wide range of nationalities, including crews from the Australian unit No. 464 (RAAF) Sqn, from 25th March 1944 to 9th April 1944. Then came 180 Sqn (12 – 26th April 1944) a short-lived unit that survived just under four years before disbandment only to be reformed as No. 69 Sqn.

Coinciding with 180 Sqn was the Auxiliary Squadron, No. 613 Sqn with Mosquito VIs. This too would disband at the end of the war also to reform as 69 Squadron. Then as April drew to a close another international unit would arrive and depart, a New Zealand unit, No. 487 Sqn (RNZAF)  also bringing Mosquito VIs – an aircraft they used in conjunction with 464 Sqn in the attack on the Amiens prison earlier on.

Finally for two weeks in May 1944 (6th – 18th), a dutch contingency arrived in the form of No. 320 Squadron. 320 Sqn was formed out of evacuated Dutch airmen along with a handful of Fokker T-VIIIW seaplanes which they used until spares were no longer available. Here at Swanton Morley they had lost their seaplanes and were now flying Mitchell IIs, wreaking their revenge by attacking enemy communication lines and airfields. After the war the crews of this unit were transferred to the Royal Netherlands Navy and 320 was disbanded as an RAF unit.

ROYAL AIR FORCE: 1939-1945: COASTAL COMMAND

Before arriving at Swanton Morley, No. 320 Sqn flew a handful of Fokker T-VIIIW float-planes, that they had brought with them when the Netherlands fell to the Germans. Here, one is being serviced at Pembroke Dock, August 1940. (© IWM (CH 1042)

Coinciding with the invasion of Normandy in June 1944, the Bomber Support Development Unit (BDSU) transferred across from RAF Foulsham. Developed under the wing of 100 Group, they used a range of aircraft to investigate and develop electronic counter measures and radar technologies for aircraft.  At Swanton Morley, this involved nine Mosquitoes, MK XIX and XXX, to operate in both operational and non-operational duties. The BDSU (and 100 Group) were responsible for a range of electronic devices including Serrate, Hookah, Perfectos and Mandrel to name but a few, and were involved in some 114 operations, claiming  five air-to-air victories.

The USAAF were to play another small and final part in the life of Swanton Morley, when on 25th July 1944, B-24H ’41-29402′ “The Mad Monk” of the 786th BS, 466th BG, took off from nearby Attlebridge. It clipped some trees causing it to crash-land at Swanton-Morley; the aircraft was so severely damaged it was condemned and salvaged for spares.

Another near disaster was averted at Swanton Morley when Mosquito NFXXX (MM797) of the BDSU crashed after take off on the night of 2nd-3rd January 1945. On take off, with a full fuel load, the port engine began leaking glycol at a furious rate. Too low to bail out, the pilot, Flt. Lt. Harry White DFC, put the aircraft down on the frozen ground. After both pilot and co-pilot were pulled from the wreckage by local farmers, the aircraft exploded creating a ferocious fireball that destroyed the airframe completely.

Eventually the war came to a close, the ‘Window’ research station was transferred to the BDSU and in the summer 100 Group was disbanded. With that Swanton Morley fell quiet and no further operational units would serve from here.

In the closing months of 1946, No. 4 Radio School moved in using Avro’s Anson, and Percival’s Proctor and Prentice aircraft. Various ground units also used the site but gradually flying all but ceased. Eventually on September 15th 1995, Battle of Britain day, the RAF Ensign was lowered and RAF Swanton Morley was officially closed. A small private micro-light club took over part of the site, but in 1996 the Army claimed the airfield forcing the club to close. It remains in the hands of the Army today as the ‘Robertson Barracks’, named after Field Marshal Sir William Robertson and no flying takes place.

Swanton Morley’s history was fairly rare, in that it never had any concrete runways and boasted to be one of the longest lasting Worlds War 2 grassed airfields. It had, at its peak, one – ‘J’ Type hangar and four – ‘T2’ hangars. Its watch office, built to drawing 5845/39, included a Met Section and is now thankfully, a Grade II listed building making it one of the best originally preserved examples of Watch Office designs.

Swanton Morley june 2016 (3)

Swanton Morley had four T type hangars. All but one have been demolished. This one remains in private ownership.

Many of the original buildings have gone and either their concrete bases left or more modern replacements put in their place. Some of the concrete pathways have been removed as have all the dispersal pans. The bomb store is now a field and all but one of the hangars were demolished – the remaining one being re-clad.  A number of pill boxes and air-defence structures also remain, but like the main airfield site it is all securely kept behind very high fences and armed guards.

The public highway circumnavigates Swanton Morley, but views are best achieved from the main entrance. As with all active military sites there is a no stopping rule, but as you pass, careful observations will reveal some of the main buildings of the accommodation area.

Swanton Morley retains some if its historical features, and they are all in the care of either the Army or the local farmer. As the MOD holds this site, many of these features are well hidden from public view, but for now at least, this along with the preservation order on the watch office, does at least mean Swanton Morley’s past is in part ‘protected’ for future generations.

From Swanton Morley we visit two more airfields in the area, Hethel, a USAAF base with its own museum and Hingham an airfield that had possibly the shortest life of any UK airfield.

Sources and further reading

*1 Royal Air Force Historical Journal No. 35

*2 Chorley, W.R., “Bomber Command Losses of the Second World War, V1, 1939-40″, Classic, 1992

Norfolk Heritage Website

Freeman, R.A., “The Mighty Eighth“, Arms & Armour, 1970

Bowman, M., “100 Group (Bomber Support)”, Pen & Sword, 2006

466th Bomb Group – a Disastrous start to the War.

The area around Attlebridge is steeped in historical value, archaeological finds have dated inhabitants of the area going back as far as prehistoric times; the Romans, Anglo Saxons and Normans have all left their remnants and marks. So too, has more modern man.

RAF Attlebridge (Station 120)

Initially built as a satellite for Swanton Morley, Attlebridge would eventually pass into the hands of the USAAF, receiving the designation Station 120 . As a satellite it was built with less ‘quality’ features than standard ‘A’ Class airfields, but this would not prevent its development or use by a range of single, twin and four engined aircraft of both the RAF and USAAF.

RAF Attlebridge, which became the home airfield of the 466th Bomb Group, earlier in the war when the RAF still owned the station. The control tower is to the left of the windsock. Handwritten caption on image:

RAF Attlebridge Watch Office with Ops Room, the photo is believed to have been taken before the USAAF moved in. The office is a Type ‘A’ design (17821/40). and would have later additions to bring it up to improved standards.   (IWM)

Opened in 1941, initial occupants were the dispersed Blenheim IVs of 105 Sqn from the parent airfield RAF Swanton Morley. Operating anti-shipping roles, they were originally state-of-the-art aircraft but were quickly left behind in the development stakes as the war progressed. Their failings were soon revealed in front line operations and so activities were reduced to low-level attacks on shipping and coastal targets.

No. 88 Sqn (RAF) were the first permanent residents of Attlebridge. Having replaced their Blenheim IVs for Bostons IIIs in the previous July, they brought these new and updated American built aircraft to Attlebridge to continue the low-level attacks on the European continent. 88 Sqn would operate various model s of the Boston right up until their departure the following year and then subsequent disbandment later in 1945.

These were infant years for Attlebridge, and it was soon realised that upgrading was going to be needed if it was to be a serious contender. So reconstruction work began and the site was upgraded with new concrete runways, improved perimeters tracks and dispersal points.

Across the Atlantic, the American’s began their immense build-up, and in the Autumn of 1942, Martin’s controversial B-26 ‘Marauders‘ were flown in via the northern Atlantic route. Both Attlebridge and nearby-by Horsham St. Faith received the new crews. A period of training was undertaken that consisted of low-level flights across the English countryside, but Attlebridge remained a back-seat airfield, acting as a staging post before the Marauders along with the Twelfth Air Force, moved on to the Mediterranean Theatre.

USAAF Station 120

One of the many structures that remain swamped by undergrowth.

Little happened following their departure; the construction work was completed and the RAF returned with another American built model, the B-25 ‘Mitchell II’. 320 Sqn (one of three Dutch squadrons) brought these with them from RAF Methwold in the western regions of Norfolk; they stayed here until August 1943 undertaking a small number of operations in low-level raids.

A spate of Luftwaffe attacks on the East Anglian coast instigated a short stay by Typhoons of 247 Sqn (RAF) which saw them use Attlebridge as a stepping stone, moving through 12 airfields in as many months, a pattern that would continue well into 1947.

At this point, Attlebridge was assigned to the Eighth Air Force and further reconstruction of the airfield began. Improvements to the runways were made, new perimeter tracks, dispersals and technical areas were all added. The three original runways of 1,220, 1,120 and 1,080 yards, were by now increased to the standard 2,000 and two of 1,400 yards accordingly, each being 50 yards wide.

To accommodate the expected influx of 3000 crews and support staff, the accommodation sites would be increased to a total of 11: two communal; a WAAF site; sick quarters; a mix of officers, sergeants and enlisted airmen quarters and a sewage treatments works. Aircraft would be dispersed around a mix of both original and new ‘spectacle’ and ‘pan style’ hard stands, over 60 in total, with two T2 hangars and a blister hanger providing maintenance shelters. A larger bomb store – located to the east, would also accommodate the huge tonnage of bombs that was going to be required in the forthcoming onslaught over occupied Europe.

The scene was set and in February 1944, the Skies over Norfolk would reverberate with the sound of America’s most-produced, four-engined ‘heavy’ bomber.

USAAF Station 120

One of the many air-raid shelters that can be seen around the area.

The only major Group to be stationed at Attlebridge was the 466th Bomb Group, 96th Combat Wing, 2nd Air Division, who arrived in early 1944.

The 466th BG were constituted on 19th May 1943, being activated in August that year. They flew Consolidated’s B-24 ‘Liberator‘ in the ‘H’, ‘J’, ‘L’ and ‘M’ models, and was made of four Bomb Squadrons: the 784th BS (code T9), the 785th BS (code 2U), the 786th BS (code U8) and the 787th BS (code 6L). The 466th would be nicknamed “The Flying Deck” and they would operate solely from Attlebridge.

In February-March 1944 the 466th moved in. The air echelon transferred via the southern ferry route to England, the ground echelon taking the Queen Mary to Greenock. They were new, inexperienced in combat, and as ‘rookies’ this would be a major factor in their disastrous start to the war.

USAAF Station 120

Many parts of the runways and dispersals remain in full width.

Their maiden operation, a mission to Berlin, on March 22nd 1944 would very quickly bring home the dangers of aerial warfare and close formation flying. Even though fighter attacks were non-existent, two B-24s were to collide with the loss of 13 of the two crews. B-24H ’41-29434′ “Terry and the Pirates” collided with B-24H ’41-29416 “Rebel Yell” after “Rebel Yell” was hit by flak. The resultant collision caused both aircraft to fall from the sky and crash West of Oranienburg, in Germany.

On the second operation, the following day, two more B-24s collided over Osterburg, and again heavy casualties were incurred. Onboard one of the aircraft, – B-24H ’41-29466 ‘Dark Rhapsody‘ – were three replacement crew members: Robert A. Gum (C/P), Bogan Radich (R/O) and Aleck A. Amich (TG), it was Amich’s first and only mission – suffering from his injuries, he died three days later in hospital. The two B-24s crashed into or near the Zuiderzee, in the north-west of Holland, where fuselage parts of ‘Dark Rhapsody‘ were later recovered in 1981. Only three of either crew survived taken as prisoners of war.

USAF Station 120

A memorial stands to the south-west overlooking the former technical site.

Then a third collision on the 27th March meant that six aircraft had been lost in five days with little or no enemy intervention. It was not a good start for the freshman of the 466th!

In an attempt to reduce these collisions, which occurred throughout the war, war-weary B24s were stripped of their armaments, painted bright colours and patterns, and lit up so formating aircraft could identify their correct path and position in the formation. Known as ‘Forming Ships’, ‘Circus Leaders’, ‘Judas Goats’ or more commonly ‘Assembly Ships’; they were painted in bizarre patterns and carried a huge quantity of pyrotechnics, that itself being a danger to the operating crews. Many units operated their own assembly ships for this purpose, the 466th using a former 44th BG B-24 ’41-24109′ painted entirely in red zigzags.

The 466th BG would recover from this terrible start and go on to operate in a strategic bombing role, attacking targets such as: Liege; Brunswick; the Bohlen oil refineries; Kempten aircraft plants; Hamburg; Saarbrucken; Misburg and airfields at St. Trond. They supported the Normandy landings, the St. Lo breakout, hit communication and transport links during the Battle of the Bulge, and supported the Rhine Crossing. They would fly their last mission on April 25th 1945.

The 466th BG would not suffer as badly as many of the other groups did. Their initial entrance in the war marred by losses, would soon fade away. By the war’s end they would complete a total 232 missions, a remarkable achievement in just over one year. A total of 5,762 operational sorties would see 12,914 tons of bombs dropped on enemy positions. They would lose ‘only’ 47 aircraft in action with a further 24 others being lost as ‘other’ loses. The 785th BS had the enviable record of 55 consecutive missions without loss, but the 466th were to also suffer the last aircrew casualties of the entire Eighth Air Force.

last crew shot down 21 apr 45 10kia

The last crew to be shot down over Germany, taken 21st April 1945, 10 of the crew were killed. Standing Left to Right: John C. Murphy (RN), John A. Perella (N), John A. Regan (CP), Richard J. Farrington (P), George E. Noe (PN), Chris Manners (B) Kneeling Left to Right: Robert E. Peterson (TG), John C. Brennan (WG), Jerome Barrett (FE), Howard G. Goodner (R/O), Albert Seraydarian (G) Only Manners and Seraydarian were able to bail out. .(IWM.)

After the USAAF pulled out, Attlebridge was returned to RAF ownership, it was put under care and maintenance and retained until sold off in 1959.  It is now owned by the Bernard Matthews company and as with many of the airfields that adorn Norfolk, they are now used to house Turkey sheds.

DSC_0064

Views along one of the runways

The main runways and perimeter track of the airfield are very much evident and in a good state. As this is private ground, access is not permitted, but good views across the tracks can be gained from the local road. There were minimal visible signs of standing buildings, but the control tower was extended and is used by the management of the site.  More careful probing will reveal signs of buildings and  the bomb shelters laying waste amongst the trees. It is possible to drive round the entire site, being only feet from the perimeter track at any one time. Amongst these trees evidence can be seen of the airfields perimeter track. Odd derelict buildings lay swamped by vegetation and trees. At entrances to the site, good views along the runways give a perspective of the size of the place. Hard standings and concrete dispersal pens lay on either side of the road, now used to store sugar beet and other produce cultivated by the local farmers.

The accommodation sites, widely spread to the south-east, have little in the way of visible structures, although some huts are still used by small businesses and remain in reasonable condition.

The blister hanger still stands, although it is now showing signs of wear and its life may well be limited. Whilst large parts of the airfield have survived and survived well, many of the spectacle dispersals have been reduced, in some areas completely removed, presumably for hardcore, and only the tracks through the bomb store remain through the trees.

The western end of the main runway, perimeter track and connected dispersals have all been removed, the public road (Breck Road) now cutting through what was the main technical area. It is the only part that utilises any of the original perimeter track.

It is along this road, only feet from one of the dispersals, that there is a memorial dedicated to the crews of the airfield who served here.  A well-kept memorial, it portrays a Liberator of the 466th, 2nd Division, 8th Air force, ‘The Flying Deck’ and the badges of each of the four bombardment squadrons. It tells of the combat missions over Normandy, France, the Rhineland and the Ardennes. Dedicated in 1992, 50 years after the end of hostilities, it serves as a little reminder of those brave souls, who gave their all from this small part of Norfolk.

Attlebridge had the dubious honour of having the last crew to be shot down over Germany fly from it. As with other sites, its easy to picture a bustling base, aircraft rumbling along preparing to take off on what may be their last flight. Where man once stood, turkeys now breed.

USAAF Station 120

One of the Dispersal pans at Attlebridge.

Whilst visiting Attlebridge, it is worth taking a short journey westward to Hockering Wood, a site of Special Scientific Interest and one that is also steeped in history. More recently, it served as a massive bomb store, and evidence of its activities still remain.

(Attlebridge was visited in 2014 this page has been revised.)

Attlebridge forms a Trail taking in a number of airfields in this region all of which are covered in Trail 7.

 

A memorial for three aircraft that crashed close by.

Trail 22 takes us to an area of Norfolk that is filled with narrow lanes, and ‘chocolate box’ villages with duck filled streams and babbling brooks running through the middle. An ideal and welcome break from the horrors of what was witnessed in the skies of occupied Europe all those years ago.

Travelling away from Great Massingham and West Raynham, we carry on east, toward Norwich and then take a left turn and head north. Cutting through the delights of Norfolk, we take in the last few sites that offer good examples of airfield architecture. Before reaching our first site however, turn off the main road at Weasenham St. Peter, for here is a small reminder of the terrible tragedies of war.

Nestled in the village is a small but poignant reminder of the dangers faced by the young men who flew in our skies. Once over friendly territory, crews would often feel safe knowing that ‘home’ was but a few miles away. However, for many the danger was not over yet.

A pyramid memorial in this quiet and almost insignificant village, identifies the crews of not one but three aircraft that crashed close by killing all onboard. From this point you can see the hangars of West Raynham dominating the skyline, an indication of how close to home these young men were.

Blenheim L8800, of 114 sqn RAF, crashed on 5th June 1942. On board were: Sg. F. Cooke, Sgt. J Wallbridge (VR) and Sgt. E. Kitcher (VR) all of whom lost their lives. On 17th October that year, a B25 Mitchell,  FL206 of 98 sqn RAF, crashed killing the crew: Flt. Sgt. D. Tanner, Sgt. E. Boreham, Sgt. L. Horton and LAC F Barnett all of RAF(VR). Finally on May 22nd 1943, close to his spot a Douglas Boston III, AL285 of 342 ‘Lorraine’ Sqn.  crashed killing all her crew, who were part of the Free French Airforce: Lt. M. Le Bivic, Lt. R. Jacquinot, Sgt. L. Cohen and Cpl. J. Desertlaux. All three aircraft were based at nearby West Raynham when the tragedies struck.

various 003

The memorial at Weasenham St. Peter. Behind you, are the not so distant hangars of RAF West Raynham.

A sad and terrible loss of life. When leaving here, return to the main road and head east to our first stop at RAF Foulsham.