RAF Hethel – from Africa to Norfolk

As we leave both Swanton Morley and Hingham behind, we head directly east crossing the main A11 toward Wymondham and Mulbarton. Here we visit another former USAAF base now home to Lotus cars. We stop off at RAF Hethel.

RAF Hethel (Station 114)

RAF Hethel was initially designed for the RAF but, like so many airfields of the Second World War, it was transferred very quickly to the USAAF for use by the bombers of the  Eighth Air Force. Construction of the site began in 1941 and wasn’t complete when the first units arrived in 1942.

The ground echelons of the 320th BG arrived at Hethel in September, poised and ready for training. Travelling across the northern sea route, they arrived long before the air echelons who, due to extremely bad weather, had to divert from their designated route to the longer Southern route, via Africa. As this was considerably further to fly, many of the B-26s, of these units did not arrive until well into the December.

A dramatic picture of B-24 Liberator ’44-40085′ “Z-Bar” of the 389th BG after crash landing at Hethel. It was hit by British Flak and on trying to land, crashed into a radar building. Surprisingly all the crew escaped. 22nd April 1944 (IWM)

Training of these raw crews became the responsibility of the Eighth Air Force – and raw they certainly were. The 320th had only been active since June 23rd that year, and within  weeks they would be posted to North Africa once suitable airfields had been secured.

Construction work continued on Hethel throughout the latter stages of 1942 and into 1943; the number of hardstands rose from the original 36 to 50 giving a mix of both ‘spectacle’ and ‘frying pan’ types dotted around the three concrete runways. The main runway ran north-east to south-west with two smaller runways traversing east-west and north-west to south-east respectively. A large bomb store was located to the north-west, the opposite side to both the technical and accommodation areas both of which were to the south-eastern side of the airfield. That all important commodity, fuel, was stored to the south, and three T2 hangars would eventually provide room for aircraft maintenance away from the bitter 1940’s winters.

With the 320th away in North Africa, Hethel was operationally quiet, but the summer of 1943 would once again bring changes.

Oil had long been considered a major target, reduce your enemies oil supplies and you reduce their ability to function. Stopping these supplies however, was going to be no easy task. The mighty German war machine was using oil located in the far eastern regions of Europe, located at the very edge of any major allied aircraft’s range. This gave the Luftwaffe plenty of time to attack, on both the inward and outward journeys. With round trips in excess of 2,000 miles, they would be dangerous and difficult missions for any crews. Polesti in Romania would become synonymous with oil production and a major target for the allied forces. To reach it, crews would have to fly from North Africa at very low-level, something they had not even thought possible let alone trained for in B-24s. In the summer a plan was hatched to do just that, a low-level bomber raid by B-24 Liberators of the Eighth and Ninth Air Force launched from bases in North Africa.

Hethel and the 389th would play their part in this daring plan. The first vanguard of the 389th led by Brigadier General Jack Wood, arrived at Hethel on June 11th 1943, followed by the air echelons of the four squadrons: 564th, 565th, 566th and 567th over the next two weeks. The ground echelons travelling by ship, would arrive some time later. Urgency was the key word and so as to not lose valuable training time, ground crews were drafted in from nearby Shipdham (93rd BG) and Hardwick’s 44th BG.

This change in tactics, from high-level to low certainly perplexed the crews of the 389th. New top-secret bomb sights had been trialled over The Wash to the north of the Norfolk coast and they had been successful in their operation. Extensive training operations were put in place to prepare the crews for the forthcoming operations. So intense was this low-level training, that two B-24Ds collided over East Anglia, ’42-40687′ piloted by 1st Lt. Edward Fowble, and ’42-40774′ “Heaven Can Wait” piloted by 1st Lt. Harold James, struck each other. Whilst both aircraft managed to return to Hethel, one of the navigators, 2nd Lt. Charles Quantrell sadly lost his life. Eventually on the 31st June, the crews left Hethel, to join those they had worked so hard with, they flew via Portreath to their destination in Libya. From here they would undertake a multitude of missions including the support of the Sicily invasion before going on to attack the infamous oil refineries at Polesti. Whilst in Libya the 389th would earn many distinctions including a posthumous Medal of Honour to Lt. Lloyd H. Hughes (s/n 0-666292) for his determination in dropping his bombs on target even though his B-24 was burning ferociously. The 389th would also receive the Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) from Lt. General Spaatz and hence forth become known as “The Sky Scorpions“.

Former RAF Hethel

One of the remaining buildings on the Accommodation site.

Whilst the main sections of the 389th were out in Libya, the remaining Hethel units were reduced to training and Air-Sea rescue missions, ironically searching for downed B-17 crews, something the Liberator would prove to be invaluable at.

With the return of the Africa detachments, the Bomb Group  was complete again, and missions over occupied Europe could begin once more from Hethel. Their first contribution to this new phase was to attack Leeuwarden, but cloud cover forced them to find alternative targets on which they unleashed their devastating load. With operation STARKEY about to commence, the 389th were ordered to target the Luftwaffe airfields in the St. Omer region, and then again six days later they visited St. Andre De L’Eure. The next day, the 389th were informed that they would be returning to North Africa this time in support of the Salerno beachhead. A blow to those crews who had only recently arrived here at Hethel.

With the group split again, Hethel based units would continue the fight on. As the renamed 2nd Bombardment Division, they now carried a large Black ‘C’ enclosed in a white circle on their tail fins and starboard wingtip, they would also fly the updated ‘H’ model B-24. With a nose turret, more experienced crews had their reservations about these aircraft, slower and heavier they were also colder due to gaps in the turret surrounds.

A number of strategic missions took these aircraft over occupied Europe many deep across the German Heartland. As 1943 drew to a close the 389th would attack dock yards at Vegesack, Danzig and Wilhelmshaven; targets at Munster, Breman, Emden and Kiel to name but a few. It was at Emden that the Luftwaffe fighters were trialling a new weapon, a bomb dangled on 100 feet of wire to catch the bombers. A rather poor attempt it nevertheless caused great concern for pilots having to fly through wires hanging in an already busy sky. To bring 1943 to a close, on the 30th and 31st December, the 389th were part of further large formations attacking both Ludwigshafen on the Rhine and the airfield at St. Jean D’Angeley respectively.

Former RAF Hethel

Views of the former Technical site, now under the ownership of Lotus cars. The grey line across the centre of the photograph is the former runway now a testing track.

A new year brought little change, but with the introduction of H2X-equipped aircraft, bombing became more accurate, and new targets were identified; ‘No Ball’ operations began and attacks on German cities increased. Late February saw the 389th in action during ‘Big Week’, an operation designed to cripple the German aircraft industry by targeting both aircraft and component manufacturing sites.

With the lead up to D-day, operations would occur almost every day from June 2nd up to June 29th, there would be only six days in this month period where no missions were flown by the 389th.

November 1944 would bring another devastating blow to the crews of Hethel. A collision between B-24J ’42-50452′ ‘Earthquake Magoon‘ and another B-24J ’44-10513’ on November 21st over the local parish of Carelton Rode, saw the loss of 17 of the 20 crew men. A devastating blow that highlighted the need for good communication and careful flying in these close quarters.

Missions carried on and as the war drew to a close, fighter attacks became less effective but even more daring. Pockets of resistance were becoming a ‘nuisance’ and the need for the further ports led to an attack in the Bordeaux region. On April 14th 1945, 1,161 heavy bombers were sent to the area. The 2nd Air Division accounted for 336 of these aircraft, of which only two were lost; B-24J ’42-50774′ “Stand By” and B-24J ’42-51233′ “The Bigast Boid“.

In “The Bigast Boid” of the 567th BS, was pilot 2nd Lt. Edward Bush and his nine other crew members. The aircraft was seemingly hit by friendly fire from B-17s flying above, completely severing the aircraft in half at the trailing edge of the wing, resulting in total loss of control. In the subsequent crash all ten crew members were killed. Other pilots from the 389th who witnessed the accident, attributed the fires and crash to flares being dropped from higher flying B-17s, – such was the danger of flying in tight formations.

Leon J Nowicki, and engineer of the 389th Bomb Group with the nose art of a B-24 Liberator (serial number 42-51233 nicknamed

Leon J Nowicki, engineer of the 389th BG with the B-24 “The Bigast Boid”. The aircraft would be lost to ‘friendly fire’ on April 14th 1945.  (IWM)

Eleven days later on April 25th, 1945 the 389th BG flew its final mission. The last target to receive the attention of the four squadrons was Salsburg, an operation that closed the books on 321 operational missions in five different versions of B-24. In total they dropped 17,548 tons of ordnance, lost 116 aircraft as Missing in action and claimed 209 enemy aircraft shot down. In 1945 they were awarded ‘best squadron’ on efficiency, an award that clearly reflected their attitude and dedication to the war effort.

With the departure of the air echelon at the end of May 1945 and the ground echelons from Bristol, the unit was given 30 days ‘R and R’ before inactivation in September. Hethel like so many airfields was then handed back to RAF Fighter Command who stationed a small number of Squadrons here before disbanding them. In September 1945, 65 Sqn and 126 Sqn were here with Mustang IVs. 65 Sqn stayed taking on Spitfire LF XVI E models before moving to Spilsby in early 1946. 126 Sqn left, had a months stay at Bradwell bay and then returned here, also taking the Spitfire LF XVI E and eventual disbandment in the following March.

Five Polish squadrons then came to Hethel. During the period March to December 1946: 302, 303, 308, 316 and 317 each stayed bringing with them Spitfire XVIs / Es, Mustang IIIs, and IVs, before all being disbanded in the December 1946.

Some technical activity on the site became almost token in comparison and eventually, after being used for repatriation and displaced persons purposes, Hethel was closed and sold off. After laying dormant for a number of years, the majority of the site was bought by Lotus Cars, the company who own the ‘airfield’ today using part of the main runway and perimeter track for testing their high performance cars. The remaining accommodation areas were bought back by the local farmer and are now used for chicken farming, or left allowing the woods to envelop what is left of the accommodation sites.

Former RAF Hethel

A T2 Hangar moved to the northern side of the airfield. One of the better ‘accessible’ features of Hethel.

Considering the role of the Lotus factory, access is generally good. Look for signs for ‘Lotus Engineering’ and drive along the road passing the Lotus site. This was the main entrance to the airfield, separating the ten accommodation and defence sites (on your right) from the main airfield to your left. On the right hand side are some of the former Defence site buildings, now used by small industrial units, the Lotus factory taking over the main technical area including the control tower. On your left is one of the original three hangars. Continue on past the Lotus entrance along the road as far as you can. To your right is a wood, this once housed Communal Site 1 and beyond this the other accommodation sites. A footpath allows access through here where a small number of buildings can be seen albeit enveloped in very dense undergrowth. The road along here eventually turns into a farm, and private property, however, the chapel and Gymnasium are located along this road and have since been turned into a museum. Access to the museum is through this gate. Beyond, the road turns into a footpath and utilises the former perimeter track linking to the main runway to the north. This runs alongside the track now used by Lotus.

From here turn back, return to the main road and turn right. Follow the road parallel to the former east-west runway and turn right. Keep going following the road round, eventually you come to another T2 Hangar. Not originally erected here, it was moved at some point from elsewhere, but is perhaps one of the better examples of airfield archaeology left on the site that is ‘accessible’.

Whilst the majority of Hethel has been removed or utilised by Lotus, it makes for a fascinating trip. The museum, run by volunteers, opens infrequently but I believe offers a fabulous insight into life on the base during the war. One of the more stunning aspects of the exhibition is a number of murals painted in 1944 by “Bud” Doyle. A small memorial is also located at the museum in honour of those who served here.

Hethel was once a heaving airfield, it has now taken on a new sound, but the memories of those brave young men still linger in the Norfolk air; the trees sway to the tunes of their music and their lives rest peacefully at last, honoured in the churches of the nearby Norfolk villages.

Sources and notes

While in the area, visit All Saints Church at Hethel, a memorial headstone dedicated to the crews of Hethel is located in the churchyard with a Roll of Honour inside the church itself. It also contains a Roll of Honour and extracts from ‘The Attlebridge Diaries’, for those who flew as part of the 466th BG from nearby RAF Attlebridge.

A plaque and small stained glass window in All Saints Church, Carelton Rode, commemorates the deaths of the seventeen airmen killed in a mid-air collision in November 1944.

The Hethel Museum was closed on my visit, but a blog site gives some details of the exhibits along with the restricted opening time information.

I recommend: Freeman, R.A., “The Mighty Eighth“, published by Arms and Armour, 1986 which has proven to be a valuable source of background information.

Also Joe Baugher’s website, for serial numbers of the USAAF aircraft.

Church Memorial Honours 28 Airmen

The skies of East Anglia were once busy and alive with the throbbing of radial and piston engines. The dangers of war were constant, and until aircraft were safely on the ground,  danger and risk were always present. This is no more evident than in the large All Saints Church, Carleton Rode, Norfolk.

Although not strictly speaking in Carleton Rode, All Saints Church houses a plaque that is dedicated to the crews of  four aircraft that collided in two separate collisions over the parish during the Second World War.

The Church itself is a historic building dating back to the 13th Century. It was modified in the 19th Century following a collapse of the tall tower. This restoration work gives the visitor the impression that this large church was a built with an unnatural small tower, but this was not so.

All Saints Carelton Rode

The memorial board at All Saints Church, Carleton Rode, gives the names of those who died in the two collisions. The top board contain the names of the 389th BG; the bottom, those of the 453rd BG.

The memorial itself hangs on the north wall inside All Saints, along with wreaths presented by local organisations including representations from the American base at RAF Alconbury.

The two collisions occurred on separate occasions and involved aircraft from both nearby RAF Hethel and RAF Old Buckenham.

Both incidents involved crews of the 2nd Air Division, Eighth Air Force. The first took place on November 21st 1944, followed a few months later, on February 9th 1945, by the second. The casualties of the first, were from the 566th BS, (389th BG) flying from RAF Hethel, and the second involved crews from the 734th BS, (453rd BG (H)) flying from RAF Old Buckenham. In all 28 airmen lost their lives in these two very tragic accidents.

The 566th BS were activated Christmas Eve 1942, and were assigned to the 389th BG, Second Air Division, Eighth Air Force. On arrival in England they were sent to RAF Hethel (Station 114) in Norfolk where they would participate in the air campaign over occupied Europe.

On November 21st 1944, the 389th were preparing for a mission to bomb the oil plants at Hamburg, Germany. Liberator B-24J, s/n 42-50452  ‘Earthquake McGoon’*1, piloted by Lt. Alfred Brooks took off to formate high above the Norfolk countryside. A second Liberator, B-24J, s/n 44-10513, piloted by 1st Lt. J. E. Rhine took off to join the same formation. The entire raid would involve a colossal 366 B-24 ‘Liberators’, along with 177 fighter-escorts involving both P-47 ‘Thunderbolts’ and P-51 ‘Mustangs’ – a formidable number of aircraft to have in the sky at any one time.

As the aircraft were joining the formation, the two B-24s collided, resulting in both aircraft crashing to the ground. Brooks was the only survivor from his aircraft, whilst there were only two survivors from ‘10513’. In total seventeen of the aircrew died that day in the resultant crash.

The crew who lost their lives that day were:

1st Lt James E. Rhine, s/n: 0-820824, *
1st Lt J.W.  Safier.
2nd Lt D.R. Bromer.
2nd Lt J.E. Ryles.
2nd Lt. N.R. Snodgrass
Tech/Sgt. William M. Bucher, s/n: 36814876, *
Tech/Sgt. E.G. Forester
Tech/Sgt. Stanley H. Smith, s/n: 11082353, *
Tech/Sgt. Harold M. Thompson, s/n: 39092072, *
Staff/Sgt. Walter D. Brewer, s/n: 34872455, *
Staff/Sgt. Julius Heitler, s/n: 42041178, *
Staff/Sgt. Carl V. Hughes, s/n: 34021953,*
Staff/Sgt. R.W. Krouskup
Staff/Sgt. F.L. Landrum
Staff/Sgt.  W.E. Leatherwood
Staff/Sgt. H.W. Looy
Staff/Sgt. W.C.Sawyer

*Seven of these men are buried in the Cambridge American Cemetery, five of whom were presented the Purple Heart.

All Saints Carelton Rode

A small window also remembers the 17 men killed in November 1944.

The second incident occurred on February 9th 1945, and involved two aircraft from RAF Old Buckenham.

The 734th BS flew as part of the 453 BG, 2nd Air Division, Eighth Air Force. They were activated on 1st June 1943, moving to England during the December of that year. Their trip took them from Wendover Field, Utah, to Idaho, California and onto Old Buckenham. Throughout the war they would operate as  a strategic bomber group attacking many high prestige targets across Germany.

On February 9th 1945, two B-24s, 42-95102, ‘Spirit Of Notre Dame‘ and 42-50703 ‘Worry Bird‘ took off as part of a 313 strong force of B-24s to attack the Rothensee oil plant at Magdeburg, along with any targets of opportunity. Escorted by 151 P-51 ‘Mustangs’, they successfully bombed the target using H2X and returned home.

As the bombers were approaching Old Buckenham, the two aircraft collided and ‘Worry Bird‘ crashed in a fire-ball, within a mere hundred yards of the runway. ‘Spirit Of Notre Dame‘ on the other hand recovered from the collision making a safe landing at Old Buckenham. In the resultant crash, all 11 crews members of ‘Worry Bird‘ tragically lost their lives.

The crew of ‘Worry Bird‘ were:

1st Lt. RQ.Rollins
2nd Lt. Earl E. Check, s/n: 2005832, *
1st Lt. Max E. Stump, s/n: 0-718979, *
Tech/Sgt. J.P. Eubank
Tech/Sgt. E.W.Amburn
Staff/Sgt.J.E.Sharp
Staff/Sgt.R.W.Adkins
Staff/Sgt. E.T Soine
Staff/Sgt. D.E.Robertson
Staff/Sgt. E.C.Erker
Staff/Sgt. W.L. Starbuck

*Two of these men are buried in the Cambridge American Cemetery, one of whom was presented the Purple Heart.

This memorial reminds us of the dangers faced on a daily basis by young crews of the armed Air Forces during the Second World War. On these two days, 28 young men lost their lives in tragic accidents, that left a lasting scar on not only their bases, but their families and the local communities as well.

Notes:

All the crew members who lost their lives are remembered in the Saint Paul’s Cathedral Roll of Honour.

*1 in some references the aircraft name is given as ‘Earthquake Magoon‘.

466th Bomb Group – a Disastrous start to the War.

The area around Attlebridge is steeped in historical value, archaeological finds have dated inhabitants of the area going back as far as prehistoric times; the Romans, Anglo Saxons and Normans have all left their remnants and marks. So too, has more modern man.

RAF Attlebridge (Station 120)

Initially built as a satellite for Swanton Morley, Attlebridge would eventually pass into the hands of the USAAF, receiving the designation Station 120 . As a satellite it was built with less ‘quality’ features than standard ‘A’ Class airfields, but this would not prevent its development or use by a range of single, twin and four engined aircraft of both the RAF and USAAF.

RAF Attlebridge, which became the home airfield of the 466th Bomb Group, earlier in the war when the RAF still owned the station. The control tower is to the left of the windsock. Handwritten caption on image:

RAF Attlebridge Watch Office with Ops Room, the photo is believed to have been taken before the USAAF moved in. The office is a Type ‘A’ design (17821/40). and would have later additions to bring it up to improved standards.   (IWM)

Opened in 1941, initial occupants were the dispersed Blenheim IVs of 105 Sqn from the parent airfield RAF Swanton Morley. Operating anti-shipping roles, they were originally state-of-the-art aircraft but were quickly left behind in the development stakes as the war progressed. Their failings were soon revealed in front line operations and so activities were reduced to low-level attacks on shipping and coastal targets.

No. 88 Sqn (RAF) were the first permanent residents of Attlebridge. Having replaced their Blenheim IVs for Bostons IIIs in the previous July, they brought these new and updated American built aircraft to Attlebridge to continue the low-level attacks on the European continent. 88 Sqn would operate various model s of the Boston right up until their departure the following year and then subsequent disbandment later in 1945.

These were infant years for Attlebridge, and it was soon realised that upgrading was going to be needed if it was to be a serious contender. So reconstruction work began and the site was upgraded with new concrete runways, improved perimeters tracks and dispersal points.

Across the Atlantic, the American’s began their immense build-up, and in the Autumn of 1942, Martin’s controversial B-26 ‘Marauders‘ were flown in via the northern Atlantic route. Both Attlebridge and nearby-by Horsham St. Faith received the new crews. A period of training was undertaken that consisted of low-level flights across the English countryside, but Attlebridge remained a back-seat airfield, acting as a staging post before the Marauders along with the Twelfth Air Force, moved on to the Mediterranean Theatre.

USAAF Station 120

One of the many structures that remain swamped by undergrowth.

Little happened following their departure; the construction work was completed and the RAF returned with another American built model, the B-25 ‘Mitchell II’. 320 Sqn (one of three Dutch squadrons) brought these with them from RAF Methwold in the western regions of Norfolk; they stayed here until August 1943 undertaking a small number of operations in low-level raids.

A spate of Luftwaffe attacks on the East Anglian coast instigated a short stay by Typhoons of 247 Sqn (RAF) which saw them use Attlebridge as a stepping stone, moving through 12 airfields in as many months, a pattern that would continue well into 1947.

At this point, Attlebridge was assigned to the Eighth Air Force and further reconstruction of the airfield began. Improvements to the runways were made, new perimeter tracks, dispersals and technical areas were all added. The three original runways of 1,220, 1,120 and 1,080 yards, were by now increased to the standard 2,000 and two of 1,400 yards accordingly, each being 50 yards wide.

To accommodate the expected influx of 3000 crews and support staff, the accommodation sites would be increased to a total of 11: two communal; a WAAF site; sick quarters; a mix of officers, sergeants and enlisted airmen quarters and a sewage treatments works. Aircraft would be dispersed around a mix of both original and new ‘spectacle’ and ‘pan style’ hard stands, over 60 in total, with two T2 hangars and a blister hanger providing maintenance shelters. A larger bomb store – located to the east, would also accommodate the huge tonnage of bombs that was going to be required in the forthcoming onslaught over occupied Europe.

The scene was set and in February 1944, the Skies over Norfolk would reverberate with the sound of America’s most-produced, four-engined ‘heavy’ bomber.

USAAF Station 120

One of the many air-raid shelters that can be seen around the area.

The only major Group to be stationed at Attlebridge was the 466th Bomb Group, 96th Combat Wing, 2nd Air Division, who arrived in early 1944.

The 466th BG were constituted on 19th May 1943, being activated in August that year. They flew Consolidated’s B-24 ‘Liberator‘ in the ‘H’, ‘J’, ‘L’ and ‘M’ models, and was made of four Bomb Squadrons: the 784th BS (code T9), the 785th BS (code 2U), the 786th BS (code U8) and the 787th BS (code 6L). The 466th would be nicknamed “The Flying Deck” and they would operate solely from Attlebridge.

In February-March 1944 the 466th moved in. The air echelon transferred via the southern ferry route to England, the ground echelon taking the Queen Mary to Greenock. They were new, inexperienced in combat, and as ‘rookies’ this would be a major factor in their disastrous start to the war.

USAAF Station 120

Many parts of the runways and dispersals remain in full width.

Their maiden operation, a mission to Berlin, on March 22nd 1944 would very quickly bring home the dangers of aerial warfare and close formation flying. Even though fighter attacks were non-existent, two B-24s were to collide with the loss of 13 of the two crews. B-24H ’41-29434′ “Terry and the Pirates” collided with B-24H ’41-29416 “Rebel Yell” after “Rebel Yell” was hit by flak. The resultant collision caused both aircraft to fall from the sky and crash West of Oranienburg, in Germany.

On the second operation, the following day, two more B-24s collided over Osterburg, and again heavy casualties were incurred. Onboard one of the aircraft, – B-24H ’41-29466 ‘Dark Rhapsody‘ – were three replacement crew members: Robert A. Gum (C/P), Bogan Radich (R/O) and Aleck A. Amich (TG), it was Amich’s first and only mission – suffering from his injuries, he died three days later in hospital. The two B-24s crashed into or near the Zuiderzee, in the north-west of Holland, where fuselage parts of ‘Dark Rhapsody‘ were later recovered in 1981. Only three of either crew survived taken as prisoners of war.

USAF Station 120

A memorial stands to the south-west overlooking the former technical site.

Then a third collision on the 27th March meant that six aircraft had been lost in five days with little or no enemy intervention. It was not a good start for the freshman of the 466th!

In an attempt to reduce these collisions, which occurred throughout the war, war-weary B24s were stripped of their armaments, painted bright colours and patterns, and lit up so formating aircraft could identify their correct path and position in the formation. Known as ‘Forming Ships’, ‘Circus Leaders’, ‘Judas Goats’ or more commonly ‘Assembly Ships’; they were painted in bizarre patterns and carried a huge quantity of pyrotechnics, that itself being a danger to the operating crews. Many units operated their own assembly ships for this purpose, the 466th using a former 44th BG B-24 ’41-24109′ painted entirely in red zigzags.

The 466th BG would recover from this terrible start and go on to operate in a strategic bombing role, attacking targets such as: Liege; Brunswick; the Bohlen oil refineries; Kempten aircraft plants; Hamburg; Saarbrucken; Misburg and airfields at St. Trond. They supported the Normandy landings, the St. Lo breakout, hit communication and transport links during the Battle of the Bulge, and supported the Rhine Crossing. They would fly their last mission on April 25th 1945.

The 466th BG would not suffer as badly as many of the other groups did. Their initial entrance in the war marred by losses, would soon fade away. By the war’s end they would complete a total 232 missions, a remarkable achievement in just over one year. A total of 5,762 operational sorties would see 12,914 tons of bombs dropped on enemy positions. They would lose ‘only’ 47 aircraft in action with a further 24 others being lost as ‘other’ loses. The 785th BS had the enviable record of 55 consecutive missions without loss, but the 466th were to also suffer the last aircrew casualties of the entire Eighth Air Force.

last crew shot down 21 apr 45 10kia

The last crew to be shot down over Germany, taken 21st April 1945, 10 of the crew were killed. Standing Left to Right: John C. Murphy (RN), John A. Perella (N), John A. Regan (CP), Richard J. Farrington (P), George E. Noe (PN), Chris Manners (B) Kneeling Left to Right: Robert E. Peterson (TG), John C. Brennan (WG), Jerome Barrett (FE), Howard G. Goodner (R/O), Albert Seraydarian (G) Only Manners and Seraydarian were able to bail out. .(IWM.)

After the USAAF pulled out, Attlebridge was returned to RAF ownership, it was put under care and maintenance and retained until sold off in 1959.  It is now owned by the Bernard Matthews company and as with many of the airfields that adorn Norfolk, they are now used to house Turkey sheds.

DSC_0064

Views along one of the runways

The main runways and perimeter track of the airfield are very much evident and in a good state. As this is private ground, access is not permitted, but good views across the tracks can be gained from the local road. There were minimal visible signs of standing buildings, but the control tower was extended and is used by the management of the site.  More careful probing will reveal signs of buildings and  the bomb shelters laying waste amongst the trees. It is possible to drive round the entire site, being only feet from the perimeter track at any one time. Amongst these trees evidence can be seen of the airfields perimeter track. Odd derelict buildings lay swamped by vegetation and trees. At entrances to the site, good views along the runways give a perspective of the size of the place. Hard standings and concrete dispersal pens lay on either side of the road, now used to store sugar beet and other produce cultivated by the local farmers.

The accommodation sites, widely spread to the south-east, have little in the way of visible structures, although some huts are still used by small businesses and remain in reasonable condition.

The blister hanger still stands, although it is now showing signs of wear and its life may well be limited. Whilst large parts of the airfield have survived and survived well, many of the spectacle dispersals have been reduced, in some areas completely removed, presumably for hardcore, and only the tracks through the bomb store remain through the trees.

The western end of the main runway, perimeter track and connected dispersals have all been removed, the public road (Breck Road) now cutting through what was the main technical area. It is the only part that utilises any of the original perimeter track.

It is along this road, only feet from one of the dispersals, that there is a memorial dedicated to the crews of the airfield who served here.  A well-kept memorial, it portrays a Liberator of the 466th, 2nd Division, 8th Air force, ‘The Flying Deck’ and the badges of each of the four bombardment squadrons. It tells of the combat missions over Normandy, France, the Rhineland and the Ardennes. Dedicated in 1992, 50 years after the end of hostilities, it serves as a little reminder of those brave souls, who gave their all from this small part of Norfolk.

Attlebridge had the dubious honour of having the last crew to be shot down over Germany fly from it. As with other sites, its easy to picture a bustling base, aircraft rumbling along preparing to take off on what may be their last flight. Where man once stood, turkeys now breed.

USAAF Station 120

One of the Dispersal pans at Attlebridge.

Whilst visiting Attlebridge, it is worth taking a short journey westward to Hockering Wood, a site of Special Scientific Interest and one that is also steeped in history. More recently, it served as a massive bomb store, and evidence of its activities still remain.

(Attlebridge was visited in 2014 this page has been revised.)

Attlebridge forms a Trail taking in a number of airfields in this region all of which are covered in Trail 7.