Here lay the names of 150,000 RAF Personnel.

If you are in London, maybe taking in a show or visiting one of the many museums London has to offer, perhaps visiting the RAF Museum at Hendon or as I was, the Imperial War Museum in Lambeth, this is an ideal place to stop off and take time out. Its stained outer walls and hectic surroundings hint at nothing inside this remarkable building.

St. Clement Danes Church – London

St. Clement Danes church stands almost oddly in the centre of London in the Strand, surrounded on all sides by traffic; like an island it offers sanctuary and peace yet its history is far from peaceful.

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The view toward the Altar. The floor contains nearly 900 Squadron badges of the Royal Air Force.

It reputedly dates back to the Ninth Century AD following the expulsion of the Danes from the City of London, in the late 870s, by King Alfred. As a gesture, he allowed Danes who had English wives to remain nearby, allowing them to dedicate the local church to St. Clement of the Danes. Ever since this time, a church has remained, albeit in part, on this very site.

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The ‘Rosette’ of Commonwealth Air Force Badges embedded into the floor.

In the 1300s and then again in the late 1600s it was rebuilt, the second time influenced by the great Sir Christopher Wren – notable for his designs of buildings both in and outside of London. Regarded as being Britain’s most influential architect of all time, he designed many famous buildings such as the Library at Trinity College and the Royal Hospital at Chelsea. Wren also redesigned both Kensington and Hampton Court Palaces – his influences stretched far and wide.

Of course Wren’s ultimate master-piece was St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, a structure that reflected both his skill, vision and personality.

During the Great Fire of London in 1666, eighty-seven churches were destroyed in London, but only fifty-two were subsequently rebuilt. Whilst not directly damaged by the fire, St. Clement Danes was included in that list due to its very poor condition and Wren was invited to undertake the huge task.

St. Clement Danes - Church of the RAF

The Memorial to all the Polish airmen who served with the Royal Air Force during World War II.

It then stood just short of 300 years before incendiary bombs of the Luftwaffe destroyed it in May 1941. Leaving nothing but a few walls and the tower, Wren’s design had been reduced to ashes and rubble.

For over ten years it lay in ruins, until it was decided to raise funds and rebuild it. In 1958, following a national appeal by the Royal Air Force, St. Clement Danes was officially opened and dedicated as the Central Church of the Royal Air Force in memory of all those who fought and died whilst in RAF service, and to ‘serve as a perpetual shrine of remembrance’ to them all.

In completing the restoration, every branch of the RAF was included. At the entrance of the church, is the rosette of the Commonwealth made up of all the Air Forces badges of the Commonwealth countries, each of which flew with RAF crews during the conflicts. Beyond the rosette, the floor from the north aisle to the south aisle of the Nave contains nearly 900 squadron badges each one made in Welsh Slate and embedded into the floor.

Around the walls of the church, four on each side and two to the front, are ten Books of Remembrance from 1915 to the present day, in which are listed 150,000 names of those who died whilst in RAF service. A further book on the west wall, contains a further 16,000 names of USAAF personnel killed whilst based in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.

St. Clement Danes - Church of the RAF

Ten Books of Remembrance contain 150,000 names of those who died in RAF Service 1915 – the present day. A further book contains 16,000 names of USAAF airmen who were killed.

On either side of the Altar, are boards and badges dedicated to every branch of the RAF. Two boards list the names of those who were awarded the Victoria Cross and others the George Cross. Other slate badges represent the various units to serve and support the main fighter and bomber groups, including: RAF Training units, Fighter Control units, Maintenance units, University Air Squadrons, Medical units, Communication squadrons, Groups, Colleges and Sectors.

In the North Aisle, a further memorial, also embedded into the floor, remembers those who escaped the Nazi tyranny in Poland and joined the RAF to carry on the fight during World War II. Each Polish Squadron is represented in a beautifully designed memorial around which is written:

“I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course’ I have kept the faith”

Smaller dedications can also be found around the church, such as the Mosquito Aircrew Association, dedicated to both air and ground crews of the mighty ‘Wooden-Wonder’. Some of these memorials are in the form of gifts of thanks many of which come from other nations as their own tribute to those who came from so far away to give their lives in the name of freedom and democracy.

So next time you’re in London, take time out from the hustle and bustle of the West-end, make your way to the Strand ( a fifteen minute bus journey from the IWM) and visit this peaceful retreat.

St. Clement Danes is open every day to the public, so that those who gave the ultimate sacrifice may live on for eternity.

A Gem of a Museum in the Heart of an Aviation Mecca

I recently updated the original Trail on this site after visiting the Thorpe Camp Museum. A really pleasant little museum, it provides a wealth of information for very little cost. Its history and that of the area, is incredible.

Thorpe camp museum sits on the original  communal site 1 on the former RAF Woodhall Spa and was acquired in 1988 by a group of volunteers (The Thorpe Camp Preservation Group) who have utilised the original buildings and pathways that would have been used by RAF personnel during their stay at Woodhall Spa. Entrance is a nominal fee and worth every penny.

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Original buildings of No. 1 communal site are now a museum.

A number of original huts and buildings display a range of letters, photos, memorabilia and other artefacts that take you through aspects of life both at Woodhall Spa and Lincolnshire life during the Second World War. Specific displays tell you about each of the four squadrons based here (97, 617, 619 (Dambusters) and 627) , the crew members, aircraft and personal stories. A memorial stands at the centre of the site reflecting their dedication.

Extensive work has been done to research the famous dams raid of 617 Squadron, how the bouncing bomb was developed, how it worked and what the aftermath of the operation was.

A small shop provides food and drink, and is a welcome break after a long journey.

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An Allan Williams Turret on the site.

A civilian section shows life ‘at home’. Weddings of the Second World War were scant affairs due to lack of money and rationing, but brides made the most of what they had; examples of these are nicely displayed. The home guard, ARPs, and domestic life are all represented in this atmospheric museum.

Many young men were sent from within the borders of Lincolnshire on major operations such as ‘Market Garden’, these too are represented through displays of uniforms, photos, letters and official documents.

Further buildings, also originals, house well stocked displays of the V1 and V2 development. The terror weapons used by Hitler to break the morale of the British people. Over 3000 of these V2s were used against targets in the UK predominately London and the South East. Models, photographs and documents again show the extent of this development.

Something I had never come across before was the idea of using arrester gear on heavy bombers where runways may have been shorter than ideal. The principle, based upon that used by the navy on their aircraft carriers, was to place one or more steel cables across the runway for a landing bomber to ‘catch’ as it landed. A small number of airfields in the UK has these, Woodhall Spa being one of them, and an original winch has been removed from the airfield and carefully refurbished. This now has pride of place in the museum. It is believed a further example remains on the airfield alongside the remains of the runway. A rather ingenious but ineffective idea, it was not widely used due to mis-landings and the increased weight that the arrested gear added to an already heavy aircraft.

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An Arrester Gear Hub that was used on RAF Woodhall.

Thorpe Camp provides a chance to see inside a Lancaster cockpit. A replica, painstakingly built includes all the detail of an original Lancaster bomber. Other parts, including turrets, dials and engines can also be found in this dedicated exhibition room.

Staff at Woodhall Spa are carrying out renovation projects and have their own workshop to do this. The process can be viewed and makes for an added interest to the visit.

As an aviation enthusiast the trip is topped off with another feature in the form of a BAC Lightning F1A (XM192) in 111 Squadron markings standing proud beside another cold war relic the Bristol Bloodhound missile.

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BAC Lightning of 111 Squadron RAF.

Using a range of original documents, photographs, letters and memorabilia, Thorpe Camp at Woodhall Spa is a delight to wander and a real insight not only into the life of this Second World War airfield but life during those hard times in general.

Thorpe Camp is part of Trail 1, and is located near to RAF Coningsby. It has its own dedicated webpage where you can find further information and details.

A museum with an international flavour

This museum forms Trail 26 of our tour around Britain’s aviation past. It is of particular interest to me, not just because of its aviation heritage, but because it’s not far from where I was brought up. Indeed, I was born in the City of Coventry, a mere three miles or so from here. After about 6 months we moved away to more leafy surroundings but the influence of Coventry was not left behind.

More importantly though, my father, my inspiration and the man who gave me my love of aviation, worked here at Baginton on the Argosy for Armstrong Whitworth, an aviation company long since gone. A dear friend of his, also worked here on some secret aircraft, so secret my father sadly never saw it.

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The main building; the Sir Frank Whittle Heritage Centre.

Of course, this area is steeped in aviation history. The Jet engine was developed around here, Sir Frank Whittle’s name is used in his honour for a number of pubs and industrial sites across the region. I used to live not far from Lutterworth, famed for ‘Bitteswell’ where many test flight were made for AW, modifications were carried out to Britain’s Vulcans, Buccaneers, Gnats and Hawks to name but a few all under the name of British Aerospace. Also not far from my home was Whetstone, which had the first purpose-built jet engine factory. Coventry itself was a main target for the Luftwaffe suffering great casualties and damage during the blitz and the Cathedral ruins now stand as a monument to those who lost their lives during those terrible times. The former Standard (Later British Leyland) Motor works here built over 1000 Mosquitos and a number of other aircraft parts were made in this area. Baginton itself produced heavy bombers such as the Whitley and the Lancaster, Dunlop has a factory here as does Rolls Royce. Coventry and the area around it is steeped in both wartime and aviation history.

So Baginton holds good links to my past, and it has been far too long since I was there. So, whilst in the area, I decided to take a detour and visit the Midland Air Museum, Coventry.

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The cargo hold of the Argosy

The museum is located to the northern side of Baginton (Coventry) Airport and has utilised this site since 1975. It originally had only five exhibits when it opened but has grown  into the enormous collection it is today, holding around 40 airframes and various exhibits including: helicopters, a range of aircraft engines, cockpits, galleries and a vast collection of models. The main building, the ‘Sir Frank Whittle Jet Heritage Centre‘ is not only the main building for the displays and  engines but holds a dedicated exhibition of Sir Frank Whittle’s remarkable work.

In here, are a vast number of photographs, letters and other documents relating to the creation and development of the Jet Engine. It takes you through, step by step, the process of development of the engine, Frank Whittle’s life and the organisations that built and developed this major invention.

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Sir Frank Whittle and the early jet engine

The exhibition is housed in a small hangar crammed with jet engines amongst a small collection of aircraft. A meteor F-4 (and Mk 8 cockpit), a DH Vampire F-1, Saab J-29 and Lockheed’s T-33 being the most prominent. Cockpits other than the Meteor include that of the Harrier and a Canberra from RAF Wyton and some of these the visitor is free to sit in and experience what it was like as a pilot. Upstairs in this building, are displays of Baginton’s links with the air industry and local events of the Second World War. Again, photographs and documents relate the lives of those who lived through the war in the surrounding area. An absolute wealth of information here finished of with a huge range of well made models,

Sadly, most of the airframes are outside, some succumbing to the weather and all that the elements can throw at them. However, this aside, the range and selection of airframes is tremendous. Most models here come from the post war era, remnants of the Cold War. A Meteor night fighter stands next to the modern Tornado, A Gloster Javelin, A.W. Sea Hawk, D.H. Sea Vixen, Fairy Gannet and Harrier represent the great naval traditions of British aviation. From the RAF we have the Canberra, Hunter, Gnat, Percival’s Prentice, D.H. Beaver and two stunning E.E. Lightnings; a Saudi T-55 and a Binbrook F6 retired in 1988.

Many of these aircraft saw development in the years following the Second World War. The Canberra, first flown in 1949, served right up until 2007 and achieved many awards for altitude and performance flights. Used by Air Forces across the world, variants saw action over the Suez Canal, in Vietnam and in the Indo-Pakistan conflict in the late 1960s. Built under licence in the United States with a redesigned cockpit, the B-57 was admired by many. Production of the Canberra and its variants total around 1,500 and filled a number of roles with a variety of Air forces.

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The Boulton Paul P.111A bulit in one piece and designed to explore the aerodynamic properties of the Delta wing.

Baginton is not just limited to RAF types either. The USAF is also represented through several models, there’s the North American F-86A Sabre and F-100D Super Sabre,  McDonnell Douglas F-101B Voodoo and of course the famous McDonnell Douglas F-4c Phantom.

Initially designed as a carrier based aircraft, the Phantom was adopted by numerous air forces across the world including the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy. First flown in 1958, it was so successful that it would continue to serve into the early 21st century; with production totaling nearly 6,000 – it was a major contribution to aviation history. Like other models here, the Phantom fulfilled a variety of roles, being continually adapted to meet new demands and challenges. Truly a great aircraft.

No Cold War exhibition would be complete without opposing aircraft. A MIL Mi-24D Hind helicopter with its formidable nose mounted cannon and gas turbine engine stands alongside  Russia’s highly proven  warrior, the Mig 21.

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A McDonnell Douglas F-101B Voodoo

The Midland Air Museum has a good international flavour to it. Lockheed’s F-104 Starfighter, dubbedWitwenmacheror ‘Widowmaker’ because of its unforgiving nature, stands in Royal Danish Air Force colours, the Mig 21, East German, the Gnat in Finnish Air force markings and the French represented with Dassault’s Mystere IV.

However, amongst all this hardware, there are two airframes that stand out for me here at Baginton, and not for their size alone, Avro’s B2 Vulcan ‘City of Coventry’ XL 360 which stands in 617 Squadrons colours, a squadron it served with before retirement, and Armstrong Whitworth’s Argosy 650, of which this is the oldest surviving example. To see both, not only remind me of my younger days, but provide a link to my father whose memories are fading as each day goes by.

One of the delights of the Midland Air Museum is that you can sit for free (donations accepted) in many of the cockpits where knowledgable guides will talk you through its history and features, something rarely found elsewhere.

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Avro Vulcan B2 XL360 ‘City of Coventry’

To finish off your walk round, there is a small but clean and pleasant cafe, a shop that is filled to the brim with model kits, books and other mementos of your day. The staff are friendly and helpful, always a blessing.

Whilst some of the airframes are looking a little jaded, there is an extensive collection  to be found here, and for those interested in all things aviation, especially the development of the Jet engine; from the early days of the Sapphire, through to the Olympus, the Avon and the RB199 turbo fans of the Tornado; the Midland Air Museum has them all.

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Sisters sit side-by-side

Coventry Cathedral is about 3 miles from here, and if time permits, is also worthy of a visit.

Details of the museum can be found through their website.