RAF Leuchars – one of Britain’s oldest airfields (Part 5)

After Part 4, in this, the final part of Trail 62, we round off our look at RAF Leuchars. We have seen how to grew from a balloon training ground in the pre-war years to a training station for early flyers. Then on to maritime patrol, the Cold War and QRA status. Now as the years pass, defence cuts rear their heads once gain, Leuchars is once more under threat from politics.

The 1970s would see a return to training here at Leuchars with both the RAF and the Royal Navy embarking on new ventures with the Phantom – McDonnell Douglas’s all round, all-weather, multi-role aircraft. With new models, come new training units, and with the arrival of 111 Sqn the famous ‘Treble One’, in November 1975, also came a training support unit – the Post Operational Conversion Unit (later known as the Phantom Training Flight). The primary role of this unit was to train Fleet Air Arm aircrews for carrier borne models of the Phantom.

A No. 111 Squadron McDonnell Douglas F-4K Phantom FG.1, an aircraft closely associated with RAF Leuchars. (License: GNU Free Documentation License 1.2)

By the early 1970s, the shortcomings of the Lightning were now more than apparent, a lack of range and loitering ability becoming more obvious as the Phantom’s capabilities outshone it. A slower, but far more advanced Phantom, was proving to be more than just a suitable replacement for the now ageing ‘rocket of the skies’.

Whilst the Phantom was phased in and the Lightning phased out, pilots of the Lightnings continued to be wary of its tendency for engine fires, a problem that had  been present for some time. One such incident saw Lightning XS918 catch fire before the pilot (Flying Officer Doidge) manged to eject over the North Sea, West of The Bell Rock, 9 miles East of RAF Leuchars. Unfortunately controversy surrounded several aspects of the pilots kit, after he ejected he became detached from his survival kit, an inquiry highlighting ‘modifications’ to his clothing that may or may not have led to his tragic loss of life. In what appears to have been common practice amongst many airmen, changes were officially made to the kits supplied to aircrew in light of the accident.

The transition between Phantom and Lightning was a smooth if not rapid one. At Leuchars, the final farewell was made at the annual open day in September 1975, when six of 23 Squadron’s Lightnings and and four Phantoms of 43 Sqn formed a flypast. The Lightnings passing over the airfield in dramatic style saying a last farewell to the station where it has performed its duties so well for many years. With their disbandment in October, the baton and well and truly been passed over to a new breed of aircraft.

Between 1972 and 1978, Leuchars saw further sporadic returns of the Royal Navy, with 892 Squadron from HMS Ark Royal utilising the ground space for its operations. By 1978 though, 892 Sqn was disbanded, and their ship – the Ark Royal – decommissioned, bringing an end to this relationship between the navy and Leuchars. However, the FG.1 Phantoms used by 892 were absorbed into 111 Sqn, replacing the FGR.2s they had been operating before.

The end of 892 Sqn was marred by a tragic accident When rehearsing for the final solo display, the aircraft, a McDonnell Douglas Phantom FG 1 ‘XT868’ flown by Cdr. C. C. N. Davies and his navigator/observer Lt J. Gavin, suffered multiple engine failures whilst flying low, downwind along the runway axis. The aircraft entered a tight right hand turn through 180º to fly dead stick back along the runway. The Phantom’s right wing then struck the ground, and with the aircraft now perpendicular to the runway, the pilot ejected followed almost immediately by the observer. In their exits, the pilot was severely injured whilst the observer was sadly killed.

The decision to scrap the angled-decked carriers of the Navy would in turn have an eventual knock on effect at Leuchars. With both naval Buccaneers and Phantoms transferring to the RAF, no new training would take place – the Navy now looking toward the introduction the Harrier. The Phantom Training Flight would for now, remain at Leuchars though its role ‘downgraded’ to performing refresher training, ensuring that a round the clock, carrier based status was maintained in the UK.

It was also at this time that another film crew arrived – this time from the BBC – who used Ark Royal and her on-board flying units, including 892 Sqn, for their documentary ‘Sailor‘. The iconic insight into carrier operations was perhaps made even more famous by its theme tune of a similar name sung by Rod Stewart.

The 1970s saw continuous and increased intrusions into the the northern airspace around the UK, and as a result QRA scrambles became more common place at Leuchars than any other UK station. A massed show of force on Lenin’s centenary provided a massive ‘target’ for the QRA aircraft, with no less than 60 ‘Bears’ and ‘Badgers’ filling the skies on one day alone over the North Sea. A major headache for the QRA crews, it did however provide an excellent photo opportunity even allowing for a Marham Victor to shadow a Soviet Tu-95 ‘Bear’ much to the annoyance of the AOC No.1 Group when he got to hear about it.

With continued use, the runway needed a further resurfacing, and after the Phantoms of 43 Sqn had departed to Kinloss for a ‘Bolthole’ (where Station based aircraft deploy to temporary locations) deployment to carry out QRA operations from there, and those of 111 had left for Coningsby, Leuchars was left to the developers, and for an estimated eight months the airfield was effectively out of front line action.

Now with restricted runway use, the Whirlwind and Wessex helicopters and later Sea Kings, of 22 Sqn, would be the main users of Leuchars; their Air Sea Rescue operations combining with the Scottish Mountain Rescue teams, saving not only downed aircrew but stranded climbers as well . They would also be joined by the University Air Squadrons from nearby St. Andrew’s, Aberdeen and Dundee (later amalgamated to form the  East of Scotland Universities Air Squadron) who would use Leuchars for training with their Scottish Aviation Beagle Bulldogs.

Once completed, a second phase of work was then undertaken, new hardened aircraft shelters (HAS) were to be built. Common place on bases in Germany, these were designed to withstand conventional attacks, providing protection for individual aircraft whilst dispersed around the airfield. In an announcement made by Sir Michael Beetham the Chief of the Air Staff, Leuchars and five other airfields were to receive these ‘new’ shelters. It would take several years though before those at Leuchars were ready with its QRA aircraft safely tucked inside.

As the 1980s turned into the 1990s, the Phantom had now reached the end of its life and the new Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA) the ‘Tornado’ would soon be appearing. The two Leuchars based squadrons, 43 and 111 were both stood down, the Phantoms removed and the Tornadoes brought in. 43 Sqn, who had been based at Leuchars since 1969 being the first to receive the new aircraft, a transition that saw all the Phantoms gone from the Scottish base within a year.

The introduction of the Tornado was not without its own political and military wrangling. Doubts cast upon the ability of the multi-role aircraft to perform as well as those aircraft it was designed to replace were raised by the military. History had shown some dramatic failures on this score whilst others, such as the Mosquito, had shown it more than possible with great success. Politicians however, seemed more drawn between upsetting the Americans who were trying to sell the F-15, and the multi national consortium Panavia Aircraft GmbH,  who collectively built the Tornado.  The decision would be a fine balance.

With the fall of the Berlin Wall, Soviet incursions  around the UK’s airspace would drop, the need for interceptors had now seemingly reduced, and so a review of the RAF’s front line operations was once again on the cards. The withdrawal of both the Phantom and shortly after the Buccaneer, left the Tornado as Britain’s only front line defence aircraft.

With the Gulf War in the 1991, the Tornadoes of Leuchars would play a major part and all eyes would be on them, scrutinising their every move. The gradual phasing out of Buccaneers and Jaguars leaving a lot on the shoulders of Tornado crews.

In 1995 two 43 Sqn Tornadoes from Leuchars were involved in a mid air collision over the North Sea. One of the aircraft ZE210 collided with the second, ZE733, during a joining up manoeuvre at 12,000ft whilst using night vision goggles. The pilot of ZE733 lost control and the two crew (Flt. Lt. McCarry and Flt. Lt. Booth) safely ejected, being rescued by an Air Sea Rescue helicopter from RAF Boulmer.  The second aircraft, ZE210, suffered damage to the hood and electrics, which knocked out the navigational aids. On landing, it took a considerable time to extract the crew due to the damage sustained to the hood. The aircraft was not repaired instead being used for spares before finally being dumped at St. Athan. *8

RAF Leuchars Tornado ZE967 Gate Guard at Leuchars 2018.

The 2000s saw further upgrades to aircraft and new squadrons arrive. An Operation Conversion Unit for Tornadoes No. 56 (Reserve) Squadron, arrived in 2003. It was designed to upgrade pilots to the new variant Tornado. Absorbed into the long standing 43 Sqn, it remained on site and active until 2009 when it too was disbanded.

Further cut backs to finances meant the final departure of the Jaguars from bases in England. For Leuchars it would see the reforming of the University Air Squadrons into the ESUAS. A single training unit operating in conjunction with the three Scottish Universities .

After 2010 the Tornadoes were replaced by the Typhoons of 1 and 6 Sqns. 1 Sqn was reformed here on 15th September 2012, and joined 6 Sqn who had been reformed here on 6th September 2010, this offered an almost seamless transition from Tornadoes to Typhoons. These modern fighters now formed Britain’s front line of defence against potential aggressors taking over the QRA status for the north.  But in 2014, orders came through to move the RAF out of Leuchars transferring the aircraft, personnel and role to Lossiemouth in Moray. On 31st March 2015 at 12:00 hrs, ownership of Leuchars officially passed over to the Army, Leuchars’ named was changed to Leuchars Station, and its history as an operational airfield had finally come to an end.

Designated an emergency landing ground, (Master Diversion Airfield or MDA) between 2015 and 2016 no fewer than fifteen aircraft used Leuchars for ’emergency’ landings. These included: Tucanoes (Linton-on-Ouse), Tornadoes GR4 (Lossiemouth); Hawks (Leeming); Typhoons (Coningsby) and F15s from Lakenheath in Suffolk.

A minor respite in 2020 saw the QRA Typhoons return briefly as work was carried out on Lossiemouth’s runway. Within a short period of time though, this was completed and the aircraft departed once more leaving Leuchars quiet again.

This move signified the last full use of Leuchars by the Royal Air Force, responsibility of this long standing Scottish airfield being handed over to the the British Army who now based the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and the Royal Engineers here. Various other non-flying units do serve here including The Military police units and 612 (R) Squadron, a medical unit of the RAF.

Whilst the defence cuts of 2010 indicated the closure of Leuchars, in October 2020, it was confirmed by the Ministry of Defence that they were looking into increasing both civilian and military usage of the airfield at Leuchars. Whilst there remains no intention to retain, or base aircraft here, the installation of fuel facilities does give hope that aviation will return in some form in the future. The indications are that by opening Leuchars to civilian traffic, it could bring revenue in to the hard pressed MOD*7.

Leuchars played a major part in two World conflicts being used primarily by the RAF throughout its life. The Royal Navy (Fleet Air Arm) have also been based here, as have the Army who are now the current main residents of the base. Other users include: the Dutch,  the Norwegians, the Canadians, Australians and New Zealand Air Forces as well as civil aviation organisations and University Air Squadrons.

More recently, with it being located closer to international airspace which is regularly penetrated by Soviet aircraft, the RAF’s Northern QRA aircraft were based here for many years before moving away to Lossiemouth in Moray, someway further north. Leuchars’ history is therefore long and very varied, covering a wide range of users in a multitude of roles.

RAF Leuchars has a history going back over 100 years. It was never upgraded to ‘A’ class status, and has only ever had two runways. Originally built from concrete and wood chip, the surface was upgraded to accommodate the jets of modern warfare, and the infrastructure has been added to as the airfield grew.

It has been home to a considerable number of front line squadrons along with an extensive collection of support flights, training flights and non-flying units. The number of people that have passed through its doors probably uncountable. It performed during the first World War, trained air crew in the inter-war years, and carried out vital work during the Second. Post war, it formed the front line of defence against potential Soviet aggression before returning to training through the University Air Squadrons across Scotland. Now home to the British Army, it is at least for the time being open for business, but as a flying military site, it is all but closed.

Its location has been in many ways its saviour. Operating maritime patrols and clandestine operations into occupied and neutral Europe. The Fleet Air Arm were formed from its units, and the Air Forces of several nations have been based here. It has a history that is so diverse and dynamic that very few other airfields in Britain can match it. As with other airfields across the country, its future hangs in the balance, I hope that this long living and prestigious site remains alive and well to honour all those who over the last 100 years have served from its runways.

Leuchars as an operational military site is not accessible to the general public and views across it are limited. It is thought that two rare First World War Double Royal Flying Corps General Service Aircraft Sheds are among the few original buildings that survive on the site. The accommodation areas have now been sold off to private buyers, but the airfield is intact as it is used as an emergency landing ground and by the ESUAS. With care, opportunities are there to see this historic and fascinating piece of Britain’s aviation history.

The full story of Leuchars can be seen on Trail 62.

Sources and further reading

*1 Fatal Air Accidents website 12th November 1918 – November 1919

*2 Royal Flying Corp Website

*3 An interesting film of 489 Beaufighters with invasion markings appears on the IWM website, it shows the take off and formation flying of the squadron along with some interesting ground shots too.

*4 For additional information and pilot stories about the ‘ball-bearing’ run see the Royal Institute of Navigation Blog.

*5 Thirsk, I. “de Havilland Mosquito – An illustrated History Vol.2“, Crecy 2006

*6 Further details about the BOAC Mosquitoes appear n ‘Mosquitoes on BOAC Service.

*7 The Courier.co.uk newspaper website.

*8, 11 Aviation Safety Network Website.

*9 National Archives AIR 27/2612/1

*10 Defence Transformation Volume 531: debated on Monday 18 July 2011 Dr. Liam Fox’s announcement to Parliament. UK Parliament House of Commons.

Gracie’s Guide to British Industrial History website.

Flying Magazine, (August 1972) website.

National Archives: AIR 27/1383

AIR 27/624/29

AIR 27/624/33

BAE Systems Website accessed 6/3/21.

For first hand stories of MRT work see Heavy Whalley’s blog

For a detailed account of life at Leuchars, read “Northern Q – The History of RAF Leuchars” by Ian Smith Watson.

RAF Leuchars – one of Britain’s oldest airfields (Part 4)

As Leuchars emerged from the Second World War in Part 3, it entered a new phase in its long and distinguished life. No longer operating maritime patrols, it was now entering the Cold War, and under a new Command, that of Fighter Command, it would take on a new role with a new breed of aircraft.

Throughout the war Leuchars had been a maritime operations base, with submarine hunts, convoy patrols and anti-shipping flights taking the role of its front line squadrons. But with the last of the long range patrol aircraft being posted out, Leuchars’ role would now change, and a new breed of aircraft would be seen along its runways.

The Cold War brought a new dimension to warfare, nuclear weapons and the arms race were the flavour of the day. With both sides fearing preemptive attacks, fighters and bombers capable of carrying these potent weapons were in great need. Whilst bomber airfields across the length and breadth of Britain were modified to accommodate newer and bigger aircraft, Leuchars physically changed very little. However, being transferred to the control of RAF Fighter Command, Leuchars would be propelled to the forefront of RAF operations, with both day and night fighters soon shattering the quiet of this post war airfield.

This new focus would mean that the 1950s would see Leuchars aircraft participating in a number of high profile exercises ‘Coronet‘, ‘Premraf‘, ‘Kingpin‘, ‘Formulate‘ and ‘Fabulous‘ which often required the deployment of detachments to airfields around the United Kingdom. These exercises, varied in their structure, would often include Leuchars aircraft acting as the enemy trying to attack shipping or other targets at altitudes from very low level up to 50,000 feet. Air-to-air gunnery was also involved as war air-to-ground rocketry.

With this transfer came further changes. The first jet to arrive was the Meteor in the form of the F4. with 222 Sqn in May 1950. After staying for seven years upgrading to the F.8 and then returning back to the F.4, the unit was finally disbanded in 1957 only to re-emerge as a Bloodhound operator at RAF Woodhall Spa in Lincolnshire.

The next squadron to arrive, 43 Sqn, arrived in November 1950, and also brought the Meteor F.8. On 22nd October 1952, one of these aircraft Meteor F8 VZ461 ‘W’ was lost on route from  RAF Acklington to Leuchars as part of  three-ship formation. The aircraft (number two in the formation) suffered problems when its artificial horizon failed. The pilot, Pilot Officer Maurice William Prior, notified the lead pilot who instructed him to make a starboard turn and rejoin the group above the clouds. Unfortunately the Meteor descended instead, and struck the sea near to Coquet Island off Amble, Northumberland. In the accident, which was put down to ‘instrument failure’, the pilot lost his life.*9

THE ROYAL AIR FORCE, 1950-1969

Hunter F.1s of 43 sqn RAF Leuchars, in a vertical climb. © IWM RAF-T 42a

43 Sqn retained their Meteors until 1954, they then replaced them with the Hawker Hunter; flying marks including the: F.1, F.4, F.6 and F.G.A.9 in a front line role. After transferring to Nicosia in 1961 and eventual disbandment, the squadron was reformed here at Leuchars in in 1969 with the McDonnell Douglas Phantom FG.1. An upgrade to the FGR.2 in May 1988 eventually led to the Phantom being replaced by the Panavia Tornado F.3 in 1989. This made 43 Sqn one of the longest standing front line squadrons to reside at Leuchars in its entire history.

1951 would see another long standing resident unit at Leuchars. But the early months were noted for more short stay units. The ‘sister’ of the Meteor, the DH. Vampire, made a presence through 602, 612 and 603 Sqns between April and July that year, each reflecting Leuchars’ war time record and staying for short periods before moving on. For a while over the summer months, Leuchars would be home to no less than six front line squadrons, five of them with Meteors or Vampires with a sixth flying that old favourite the Spitfire.

Then in September 1951, 151 Sqn was reformed, an ex-wartime unit it had its roots firmly in 1918. Initially flying the Vampire NF.10, Meteor NF.11, and then in September 1955, the Venom NF.3, it left for a spell at Turnhouse before returning to Leuchars in 1957 with the Delta Winged Gloster Javelin FAW.5. In September 1961, the squadron disbanded again being reformed a year later at Watton.  During the war it had operated as a night fighter unit, a role it continued here at Leuchars. Donned with the Saltire of St. Andrew, the flag of the patron Saint of Scotland, it would make a good companion for 43 Sqn with whom it had flown with during the Battle of Britain with Hurricanes.

In 1952, a 222 Sqn Meteor from Leuchars took off on a low level training sortie over the Scottish mountains. The aircraft, an F.8 ‘WA882’ piloted by Pilot Officer Brian Lightfoot, departed Leuchars at 9:58am in poor conditions. Snow covered the mountains and frequent snow showers were experienced over the area. At 10:20, a witness reported hearing a crash and seeing black smoke rising from the Scottish mountain Oxen Craig, in the Bennnachie hills, Aberdeenshire. The Meteor had struck the mountain killing the pilot. It took some two weeks to locate the wreckage, most of which was buried at the scene by RAF rescue teams, after which a small memorial was built to commemorate not only the life of P.O. Lightfoot, but also the crew of a Westland Wallace ‘K6028’ which had crashed at the same location in September 1939. The official cause of the pilot’s death was attributed to “poor definition of snow covered mountains in the prevailing conditions”. It was one more loss in the Scottish hills*11.

The 50s saw a more permanent move by some RAF squadrons. 264 Sqn who only stayed for six months in 1952 with Meteors led the way. In 1954 ‘C’ Flight of 275 Sqn arrived, this signified another change in role for Leuchars as it brought the first of the helicopters to the airfield – the Sycamore HR.14. This squadron, formed in 1941 continued to perform its role of Air Sea Rescue (a much needed but over looked service during the war), and the Flight stayed here until the entire squadron was disbanded in 1959. As an Air Sea Rescue unit it understandably had Flights based at a number of sites around the UK, and took on the Whirlwind HAR 2 and 4 prior to disbandment. Working in conjunction with the Mountain Rescue Teams, many civilians as well as aircrew owe them a great deal of gratitude.

1957 then saw Leuchars enter the film industry when a crew arrived to make a film using 43 Sqn as its main squadron. Headlined by Ray Milland (Wing Commander Rudge), Bernard Lee (Flight Sergeant Harris), Leslie Philips (Squadron Leader Blake) and John Le Mesurier as the Commandant, it was about a Commanding Officer of an RAF Training School (Cranwell) who must deal with a difficult cadet. The problem was not the cadet’s behaviour so much as the fact that he reminded the Commandant of himself when he was young. The film included shots of 43 Sqn in low level, gunnery and aerobatic manoeuvres which were filmed until the end of the year when the days were too short to carry on.

The squadron initially identified with the ‘starring role’ was 111 Sqn, who had only that year been recognised as the RAF’s official Fighter Command Aerobatics team, pipping their Leuchars stable mates, 43 Sqn, at the post. ‘Treble One’ took the name of ‘Black Arrows‘ and with their nine ship formation went on to be as famous as the Red Arrows are today. 43 Sqn’s ‘Fighting Cocks‘ were a four ship group and the disappointment of not achieving the status of their Leuchars partners, ended a decade of pageants, displays and European tours where they had been centre stage across many countries.

As the decade drew to a close, so July 1958 would see the arrival of yet more Meteors with 29 Sqn. These NF.12s were operated until replaced by the Javelin, Gloster’s delta wing fighter, before they departed to Nicosia in 1963. This time  would also see the arrival of another Air Sea Rescue detachment, that of ‘C’ Flight from 228 Squadron also with the Sycamore helicopter. Throughout the war they had flown in Sunderland flying boats, including from the Scottish West coast base at Oban in 1941. The detachment had remained here until 1964 when it was renumbered as 202 Sqn.

The next forty years would see more front line jet squadrons, 25 Sqn with Javelins FAW.7s who retained these until their disbandment in 1962. They were followed by 23 Sqn who had disposed of their Javelins in preparation for the mighty Lightning, which they received a year after their arrival here in 1963. For eleven years they flew both the F.3 and the F.6, before they too were disbanded in preparation for yet more modern upgrades.

The arrival of the Lightning also heralded the arrival of the Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) status, the Lightning proving to be a huge step forward in terms of aircraft speed and climb rate compared to its predecessors, was an ideal interceptor; only the appalling fuel consumption and limited armaments of early models prevented it from being the ultimate attack aircraft.

Although QRA’s origins are associated with the Lightning, the Hunters of 43 and 222 Squadrons had previously retained a two minute readiness with aircrew remaining in the cockpit at all times, a rota that kept aircraft at the ready 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Sitting in the cockpit for many hours, waiting for the chance to intercept a Soviet aircraft, must have been somewhat tedious on occasions – a draining but very necessary part of the job.

Two more units arrived in 1964, 74 (Tiger) Sqn and 202 Sqn. 74 Sqn had had the honour of being the first Lightning squadron in 1960, and for bringing the first Lightning to Leuchars, roaring into the Fife skies in August that year. They remained here for three years whilst another detachment from 202 brought the Whirlwind HAR.10 strengthening Leuchars’ role in Air Sea Rescue. For the next twelve years the helicopters of ‘C’ Flight would operate from here, with other detachments at similar sites including Boulmer and Coltishall.

THE ROYAL AIR FORCE, 1950-1969

Lightning F.6 of No 74 Squadron, RAF Leuchars. Armed with Red Top air-to-air missiles, and carrying over-wing long range fuel tanks.(© IWM RAF-T 6973)

74 Sqn soon took on the upgraded Avon powered Lightning F.3, this proved to be a godsend as the MK.Is were soon becoming worn out, regular faults being difficult to repair meant that flying hours were starting to fall. This upgrade was followed in September 1966 by the F.6. With this new aircraft they, and Leuchars, would participate in the sixth ‘Tiger Meet’, which saw a gathering of NATO ‘Tiger’ units from across the European and American nations. As Leuchars was hosting the gathering, it would mean a range of unusual aircraft types would appear here, if only for a short period of time. For four days in July 1966: F-100D Super Sabres, Super Mystére B2s, F-104G and CF-104 Starfighters along with F-4D Phantom IIs and a range of support aircraft, would all be present in these operations. This brought a multinational collection of pilots and crews from France, the US, Belgium and Germany to this Scottish airfield.

Unfortunately, the event was marred by the death of French pilot Capt. Joel Dancel, whose Armée de l’Air Super Mystère B.2 struck the ground shortly after take off killing him. As a mark of respect the final days solo displays, which he was practising for, went ahead with the flags of all nations at half mast.

Then followed the infamous Labour Government’s decision in 1965 to axe large parts of the defence budget, thus cancelling numerous projects such as TSR.2. This meant that Britain’s future strike capability was seriously weakened. The various separate commands were rapidly becoming no longer viable, and so now the nearly non-existent Bomber Command and Fighter Command were both amalgamated to form the new Strike Command. It was this Command that would take Leuchars on into the 1970s and beyond.

With more Lightnings arriving in April 1967 with the reforming of the fighter squadron 11 Sqn,  a stay of some five years would see the Lightnings continue the role of policing Britain’s North Sea airspace. The RAF’s ongoing interest in Leuchars would also be kept alive and well by the the newly formed 43 Sqn, who joined 11 Sqn in 1967 with the Phantom FG.1. 43 Sqn would remain at Leuchars for over forty years, taking over where the Lightning left off, and  eventually taking on the Tornado in 1989/90.

The end of the 1960s saw what was a first for not only 23 Squadron but perhaps even the RAF, when two Lightnings of the squadron left Leuchars to perform at an airshow in Toronto. The flight, made non-stop with the help of over-wing tanks and no less than six Victors for in-flight refuelling, was made by Sdn. Ldr. Ed Durham and Flg. Off. Geoff Brindle, supported by a VC10 carrying ground crew, supplies and spare pilots. The flight, which had lasted for some seven and a half hours, ended at Toronto in front of a massed crowd of well wishers and press, a real coup for the crews of Leuchars.

Leuchars personnel would also celebrate the 50th anniversary of the RAF in 1968, when it was granted the freedom of St. Andrews. A parade through the town was supported by all makes of aircraft stationed at Leuchars including no less than sixteen Lightnings. Whirlwinds and Chipmunks from both the Air Sea Rescue service and the University Air Squadron also took part, further cementing the strong bond that had existed between Leuchars and its neighbouring town.

The 1960s finally drew to a close, world war had so far been averted but Leuchars remained on the front line, monitoring and intercepting Soviet aircraft over the North Sea, at least for the time being.

In the fifth and final part of this trail, we see how Leuchars is affected by defence cuts. The QRA status is at risk as is the very future of this historic airfield.

The full story of Leuchars can be seen on Trail 62.

RAF Leeming – The Great North Road (Pt 4).

In this, the last part of Trail 57 – The Great North Road (pt 2) we see how Leeming progressed from the late 1960s to the present day. From the modest little Jet Provost to the Tornado and on to the Hawk trainer. Leeming’s long history was far from over, but it is now very different to those dark days of World War 2 and the four-engined heavy bombers of the Canadian Air Force. At this point in time it was now home to No. 3 Flying Training School (F.T.S.)

The Flying Training School would remain at Leeming for twenty-three years, before being disbanded for a few years, in 1984. It  had a long history extending as far back as 1920, morphing into different guises but performing basically the same role each time.

Here at Leeming, 3 F.T.S. would use the Jet Provost T.3, a design that was based on the piston-engined P.56 Provost, using a new fuselage mated to the original wing structure, it would become a popular design, seeing many years of service both in the Royal Air Force and Air Forces abroad. Designed and built by Hunting Percival Aircraft Limited, who were based at Luton Airport, it would go through few design changes (most were technical e.g. ejection seats, upgraded engines etc) between its initial flight and final model the T.5. In 1967 it would become the Strikemaster, when the British Aircraft Corporation (B.A.C) took over, but the initial design would go on to serve well into the 1990s performing well in the training role it was designed to do.

The Provost was designed for a straight through or ‘Ab Initio‘ (‘from the beginning’) role, taking the trainee pilot from the piston engined stage through to obtaining his ‘wings’ before advanced flying training as a qualified pilot.

Bruntingthorpe May 2016 079 Hunting Jet Provost T.3A at Bruntingthorpe. This was previously flown by 1 FTS.

Initial arrivals were slow, but courses ran on time and very soon Leeming would be welcoming cadets and trainees from across the globe. Over the next 20 years or so, further upgrades would be made to the airfield site, repairs and modifications made to the perimeters and hardstands. Leeming was to operate on a 24 hours basis allowing for emergency landings of visitors  both civil and military. It would take part in NATO exercises, hosting as it does today, aircraft from around the country and the globe when the need arose.

The mid 60s saw the return of female personnel to Leeming. An absence of almost twenty years with little pomp or ceremony, but it was nevertheless a milestone in Leeming’s long and distinguished history.

Another major event in Leeming’s history was the arrival of the Central Flying School (C.F.S.) in 1976-77. This addition to Leeming’s pans had been slowly coming with aircraft being dispersed here since the previous year. The C.F.S. was another long standing and dynamic unit that had gone through many changes and many moves, here at Leeming though, its arrival was heralded with a display by the ‘Vintage Pair’ a Vampire T.11 (XH304) and Meteor T.7 (WF791) seen at many airfields around the country until the flight was disbanded in May 1986.

The C.F.S.’s history is far too detailed to be looked at here, but in essence the first arrivals were the Scottish Aviation Bulldogs, a small single engined aircraft with side-by-side seating. These were joined not long after by the Headquarters, Groundschool and Jet Provosts of the C.F.S. from RAF Cranwell in September 1977.

More upgrades to hangars and aprons in the late 70s and early 80s saw further changes with arrivals and departures of other units, and a rather important cadet arrived in the form of HRH Prince Andrew, amid much public interest. 1982 also saw the arrival of an American unit, the USAF’s 131st Tactical Fighter Wing (T.F.W.), with 12 Phantom F-4s, followed not long after by C130s and C141s.

In 1984, a four year reconstruction programme amounting to some £148m was implemented to prepare Leeming for the arrival of the latest version of the Multi Role Combat Aircraft the Tornado. In this case the F2 Air Defence Variant (A.D.V.). It was during this time (1984) that Leeming would join 11 Group Strike Command, the old Fighter and Bomber Commands having been amalgamated in 1968. To facilitate the upgrade, the remaining units, both the C.F.S. and 3 F.T.S. would cease operations here. The C.F.S. departing to Scampton and  3 F.T.S. being disbanded for another five years.

The move of the C.F.S. to Scampton, saw the Jet Provosts and Bulldogs depart Leeming in a grand final farewell. Flying in formation, nine bulldogs took off an hour before a second formation of Jet Provosts led in a Vampire by Air Commodore Kip Kemball. In addition to the Bulldogs were sixteen Jet Provosts, an equal mix of Mk.3s and MK.5s, two Meteors and the Vampire. After flying over several of Yorkshire’s airfields, they arrived simultaneously at Scampton and their new home.

In July 1988 the rebuilding programme had been completed and RAF Leeming reopened with the arrival of No XI(Fighter) Sqn – on July 1st 1988. Following not far behind was No 23(Fighter) Sqn on 1st November that same year. The third squadron to arrive, No XXV(Fighter) Sqn, landed on 1st October 1989; all being reformed here and all operating the F3 Variant Tornado. The F3 would perform its duties for 20 years at Leeming, ending with the final disbandment of XXV(F) Sqn in April 2008.

XI (F) Squadron, had been in operation since 1915 with an almost unbroken service record. XXV (F) Sqn had been operating as a Bloodhound SAM unit since the early 1960s. In 1989 they returned to manned aircraft, taking on the Tornado, operating in a range of military operations during Gulf War 1, the former Yugoslavia and the Baltic States.

In 1989 a tragic accident marred the almost unblemished record of modern Leeming, when on Friday 21st July a Tornado of 23 Sqn ZE833, crashed into the sea off Tynemouth whilst on a training flight. The Pilot, Fl. Lt. Stephen Moir,  was leading a pair of ‘target’ aircraft, when after an initial field intercept he pulled the aircraft up to 4,000ft, before initiating a 20o-25o nose down dive. At 3 – 400 ft the navigator gave a verbal warning just as the on board low warning indicator, set at 200 ft, activated. Within moments the aircraft hit the calm sea, a fireball engulfing the aircraft, at which point the crew ejected. The co-pilot passed through the fireball sustaining minor burns but the pilot suffered major head injuries rendering him unconscious. After 40 minutes the co-pilot was recovered by a Sea King helicopter from RAF Boulmer, but the pilot had been unable to initiate any recovery action and sadly drowned*10.

An inquiry could not establish any direct cause of the crash, other than suggesting the pilot had not taken into account the lack of lift with wings set back at 67o and the smooth sea not providing visual cues as to his height. By the time the navigator gave his warning it may well have been too late to recover.

A second, but less serious accident occurred for XI (F) Sqn five years later on June 7th 1994. On this occasion, whilst performing a high speed, low-level (1,300ft) pass over the sea 45 miles north-east of Scarborough, the labyrinth seal around the high pressure shaft failed causing a massive fire, major component failure and eventual failure of the right engine. The aircraft, now uncontrollable, became engulfed in flames. The two crew ejected safely and the aircraft crashed into the sea. As a result, a speed restriction was put on all Tornado aircraft until the RB199 engine seal had been investigated.

Further reviews of the armed forces led to the Tornado F3 squadrons being cut. This was to aid the phasing in of its replacement the Eurofighter Typhoon. The first of these to go was 23 Sqn, who had previously occupied Port Stanley airfield following the Falklands War. After being reduced to just four aircraft the unit was disbanded only to reform here at Leeming in 1988. As a result of this review, on February 26th 1994, 23 Sqn was disbanded not reemerging again until 1996 at Waddington with Sentry AEW 1s.

Another review of the military (2003 Defence White Paper, “Delivering Security in a Changing World”) saw further reductions of the Tornado squadrons, notably the demise of XI (F) Squadron in October 2005. This reduction left just one Tornado F3 unit XXV (F) at Leeming. They remained here until 4th April 2008 when they too were disbanded.

The next big step in Leeming’s history occurred in 1995, with the arrival of 100 Squadron. 100 Sqn had a history extending back to World War 1, they had an extensive World War 2 history, culminating in the humanitarian operations ‘Manna’ and ‘Exodus’.

The role of 100 Sqn at Leeming was a far cry from the activities of the previous years. Equipped with the BAe Hawk T MK.1 – a fully aerobatic, low-wing, transonic, two-seat training aircraft, it fulfils an  ‘aggressor’ role simulating enemy forces and providing essential training to the RAF front-line units. The Hawk T1 is equipped to ‘operational standards’, capable of being armed with AIM-9L Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and up to eight 3Kg practice bombs.

A final and tragic loss occurred at Leeming on 22nd October 1999 with the loss of Hawk T.1A ‘XX193’ just outside the village of Shap in Cumbria. The flight incorporated a three ship formation flying in the aggressor role, where one aircraft attempts to intercept the remaining two, who then take defensive action. After performing two such ‘attacks’ the aggressor, flown by Sqn Ldr Mike Andrews, flew north along the M6 corridor. During a slow turn, XX193, struck two trees and a brick outbuilding causing extensive damage to the property and destroying the aircraft. Neither of the two crew managed to eject resulting in both their deaths.

The assessment of the crash ruled that the aircraft was well maintained and serviceable, and that the Hawk pilot may have been distracted by other close aircraft taking his concentration off the low height. They also sited pilot fatigue as possible factor *11

RAF Leeming Hawk T1s of 100 Sqn line up for take off at RAF Leeming.

A number of other squadrons continue to use Leeming, in April 1996, 34 Squadron RAF Regiment arrived in North Yorkshire after serving for forty years in Cyprus. Now part of No. 2 RAF Force Protection Wing, their role is to provide air force protection capabilities. In 2007 – 90 Signals Unit arrived from RAF Brize Norton, they now form the largest contingency at Leeming,  half of the airfields population, providing communication services to operations both within the UK and by supporting operations world wide.

Whilst not flying units these nonetheless provide important services and support to the Royal Air Force operations, forming a large part of Leeming’s presence in this small Yorkshire village.

In 2014, history repeated itself with the return of 405 (R.C.A.F.) Sqn who flew into Leeming to take part in operation ‘Joint Warrior’. Now flying CP-140 Auroras, it was the first time the squadron had been at Leeming since it departed in World War 2. The full story appeared in ‘The Northern Echo’ newspaper.

Currently the RAF operate both the Hawk and the 120TP Prefect at Leeming. With its history extending far back to the origins of the Second World War, its links with the Canadian bomber group and a wide range of aircraft types and personnel, its history for the moment looks secure. In an ever changing world though who knows what the future holds, but for now, Leeming plays a major role in the training of Britain’s front line fighter pilots striving to keep the World’s air spaces free from terror.

Being an active base access to Leeming is restricted. A Tornado currently resides as the Gate Guard reminding us of the links with the former work horse of the RAF’s front line squadrons. The A1 main road by passes Leeming and access to the site has to be by exiting this road and turning on to the old Leeming road into the village. The road along side the airfield does offer excellent views, and a public viewing area has been provided by the base, for those who wish to watch the flying safely and virtually unrestricted.

Leeming has along and varied history, used by many nationals and operating a wide range of aircraft types, it is has been, and continues to be, a major player in Britain’s  air defence.

RAF Leeming 120TP PREFECT

Sources and further reading.

*1 National Archives Operational Record Book AIR 27/98/1

*2 National Archives Operational Record Book AIR 27/379/4

*3 National Archives Operational Record Book AIR 27/1796/28

*4 To avoid confusion with renumbering, Air Force Order 324/40, dated 7th June 1940, stated: “In order to avoid confusion in matters pertaining to similarly numbered units of the RAF and the RCAF, all units of the RCAF, after embarkation for overseas, are to be identified by use of the word “Canada” as a suffix immediately after the Squadron number, e.g., No. 110 Canadian (AC) Squadron.” However, this order was cancelled on 4th June 1943 by Air Force Routine Order 1077/43.

*5 AIR 27/1848

*6 Emmanuel College Roll of Honour website.

*7 Coupland, P. “Straight and True –  A History of RAF Leeming” Leo Cooper 1997.

*8  The London Gazette on 23rd October 1951 (Issue: 39366, Page: 5509)

*9 Buttler, T., “The 1957 Defence White Paper – The Cancelled Projects”. Journal of Aeronautical History, Paper No. 2018/03

*10 Ministry of Defence Military Aircraft Accident Summaries 7/90 6th June 1990

*11 Ministry of Defence Military Accident Summaries January 2001.

AIR 27/141/24

The Bomber Command Museum of Canada Website.

The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum website

RAF Leeming – Royal Air Force Website.

Ward. C., “4 Group Bomber Command: An Operational Record“. 2012 Pen and Sword.

A detailed history of RAF Leeming can be found in: Peter Coupland’s book “Straight & True  – A History of RAF Leeming“, published in 1997 by Pen and Sword.

The full Trail can be seen in Trail 57.

RAF Leeming – The Great North Road (Pt 3).

In the next part of this trail, Leeming enters the jet age, its future still in the balance as many of Britain’s airfields are closed and sold off. But with new aircraft coming on line and a new threat looming from the east, Leeming survives and takes on a new role.

The end of World War 2 saw a Europe devastated by war. The Eastern countries liberated by the Russians had survived the tyranny of the Nazi regime, only to be embroiled in Communist hardship and doctrines. A new threat was emerging as mistrust grew between the Eastern Bloc and the Western Allies. A new Europe would emerge hanging delicately by a fine thread of peace: the Cold War was approaching.

Immediately though, there was little need for many of Britain’s extensive range of wartime airfields, and many were either put in to ‘Care and Maintenance’, sold off or simply closed and left to decay. But this new threat would see some of Britain’s wartime airfields remain open, some turning into missile bases, and some continuing in the air defence or strategic bombing role. For Leeming, this was perhaps, its saviour.

Within a month of the Canadian’s departure, a new unit would arrive at Leeming, not a front line fighter squadron nor a heavy bomber squadron, but a training unit, 54 Operational Training Unit (O.T.U.), which had been operational throughout the war. Flying a range of aircraft types, they were a far cry from the heavies that had preceded them over the last two years or so.

Their arrival in June was heralded by the ferrying in of a number of aircraft types, ranging from Tiger Moths to  Martinets and Wellingtons. Fighters such as the Tempest and Mosquito were also brought in during these early days of post war Leeming. The purpose of 54 O.T.U. was as a night fighter training unit, using ‘modern’ radar sets whose development had started during the war.

But years of neglect and a lack of funding, had meant that many of Britain’s airfields – to which Leeming was no exception – were in a poor state of repair, and much work was urgently needed to bring them up to a good standard. Over the next year or so, major repairs would be carried out. As a priority, the wartime accommodation buildings and now outdated water system were targeted first. Help in doing this was enlisted from German P.O.W.s who were yet to be repatriated, billeting them in the former accommodation blocks within the airfield grounds.

The immediate post war era saw a massive demobbing of forces personnel, this led to a  decline in service manpower, a move that resulted in the 1949 National Service Act. As a result of this act, adults between 17 and 21, were required, by law, to perform 18 months National Service.  This draft led to an influx of untrained personnel, who were brought in to fill gaps in important trades, but short service lengths meant the training was inadequate for many, and so a number of unskilled or poorly skilled personnel were placed in prime engineering positions. This lack of skilled personnel may well have contributed to a number of the many minor and major mishaps that occurred in the R.A.F. in the immediate years following the war.

Training new pilots was a risky business in these post war days, and on November 8th 1946, Pilot – Sqn. Ldr. Noel Dan Halifax R.A.F. (s/n: 33404), and his navigator F.O. Roy Edward Chater R.A.F.V.R. (s/n: 194286) were both killed whilst undertaking a training flight out of Leeming airfield. Chater was one of many young men who had come from the Emanuel College, Cambridge and was 21 years of age at the time of his death*6; his pilot was 27.

On that fateful day, the Mosquito, an NF30  serial number ‘NT266’, departed Leeming  in the late morning on a cross country training flight. Part of this flight took the Mosquito across the moors to the east of Leeming airfield. Whilst over the moors, the aircraft entered thick cloud which may have caused ice to form on the wings and / or control surfaces of the aircraft. The pilot, whilst a veteran of the Second World War and a Colditz inmate, had been in a P.O.W. camp for many years and was possibly inexperienced in both the aircraft type, and the weather conditions in which they were flying. After entering the cloud, the aircraft was then seen by a local farmer to dive in to the ground at Pockley Moor – killing both crewmen outright – the aircraft digging itself into the soft Moorland, where parts of it remain today. The Mosquito, a Leavesden aircraft built under contract 1/576 had only been at Leeming since the July, and was struck off charge as a result of the crash.

On May 1st the following year (1947), following the disbandment and subsequent merging of 54 O.T.U. with 13 O.T.U., a new unit, 228 Operational Conversion Unit (O.C.U.) was formed at Leeming. Flying a mix of piston engined and jet aircraft, it would eventually disband in 1961 before being reformed at Leuchars in Scotland in 1965.

One of the many types operated by the O.C.U. included the Meteor NF.36, a night fighter version of the Meteor that would be fitted with American built radar units. A delay  in supply of these models though meant that their presence would be limited, resulting in the reintroduction of the MK.XXX – a previous version of the aircraft. With a mix of aircraft types and a new influx of engineers, Leeming would soon see a return of the problems experienced by the Canadians only months before during the war.

Specialist tooling, experience in different aircraft and new parts were all once again in short supply, and in early 1948, this combination may well have led to the loss of a second Mosquito along with its pilot. In fact, as the 1940s drew to their close, pilot error and engine problems were commonly recorded as the causes of such accidents.

The O.C.U. would provide the opportunity for crews to convert from one aircraft type to another. The rise in tension in the Middle East (of which my father was to be a part of) saw the introduction firstly of the Brigand conversion course, and later the Mosquito light bomber course. These were then joined by both the Beaufighter and Meteor 7 courses. But these courses were dogged by delays, primarily due to the high number of unserviceable aircraft, created as a result of these aforementioned issues.

The early 1950s saw further changes to the R.A.F.’s training programmes, as squadrons were disbanded crews were posted elsewhere, and the aircraft they had been operating were moved about or scrapped. With much of this occurring at Leeming, the airfield would become a hive of activity. The silver lining on this rather dark cloud though, meant that the older outdated piston engines were disposed of, and more jets were brought in. The R.A.F.’s modernisation could at last perhaps begin.

RAF Leeming

A mix of old and new at Leeming.

On August 13th 1951, one of the most tragic of post war accidents was to happen to two Leeming aircraft – a Wellington and a Martinet both operated by 228 O.C.U. 

The two aircraft were carrying out air interception flights, the Wellington being used to train aircrew in the use of the interception radar, and the Martinet playing the part of the ‘target’. This was seen as an opportunity to give good experience to a group of Air Cadets who were visiting Leeming, both to see how these flights were carried out, and to give them experience in flying – it was meant to be a joyful day, but it sadly turned very sour with no warning.

With Cadets taking turns in each type, the two aircraft departed Leeming, and headed out over the Yorkshire countryside, the Martinet hiding amongst the cloud whilst the Wellington tried to track it.

The MK.XVIII Wellington (PG367) was flying over Husdwell in North Yorkshire with a crew of seven on  board that included one Air Cadet. The Martinet had a crew of two, again one was an Air Cadet gaining flying experience in the aircraft.

All of a sudden, the Martinet appeared of of the clouds colliding with the Wellington who had ironically failed to see him. The two aircraft struck each other, the collision causing the Martinet to immediately fall groundward killing instantly both the Cadet and the pilot. The Wellington meanwhile began to spin and break apart. The tail section, holding the parachutes, broke away leaving the crew stranded in the main fuselage. An experienced member of the crew, Ft. Lt John Alan Quinton (R.A.F.) G.C., D.F.C. managed to locate one parachute, strapped it onto the young cadet before he either fell, or was pushed  out, through the hole left by the now missing tail. 

With no further means of escape, the crew could do nothing but await their fate, one that came within moments and with the inevitable fatal consequences.

Of the nine people on board the two aircraft that day, only one, the cadet, sixteen year old Derek Coates A.T.C., survived, the remaining eight all being killed when the two aircraft hit the ground.

As a result of his actions, Flt. Lt. Quinton was awarded the George Cross posthumously, details being published in the London Gazette on 23rd October 1951:*8

CENTRAL CHANCERY OF THE ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.
St. James’s Palace, S.W.I.
23rd October. 1951.

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the posthumous award of the GEORGE CROSS to: —

Flight Lieutenant John Alan QUINTON, D.F.C. (115714), Royal Air Force, No. 228  Operational Conversion Unit.

On August the 13th, 1951, Flight Lieutenant Quinton was a Navigator under instruction in a Wellington aircraft which was involved in a midair collision. The sole survivor from the crash was an Air Training Corps Cadet who was a passenger in the aircraft, and he has established the fact that his life was saved by a supreme act of gallantry displayed by Flight Lieutenant Quinton, who in consequence sacrificed his own life. Both Flight Lieutenant Quinton and the cadet were in the rear compartment of the aircraft when the collision occurred. The force of the impact caused the aircraft to break up, and as it was plunging towards the earth out of control, Flight Lieutenant Quinton picked up the only parachute within reach, and clipped it on to the cadet’s harness. He pointed to the rip cord and a gaping hole in the aircraft, thereby indicating that the cadet should jump. At that moment a further portion of the aircraft was torn away and the cadet was flung through the side of the aircraft clutching his rip cord, which he subsequently pulled and landed safely. Flight Lieutenant Quinton acted with superhuman speed, displaying the most commendable courage and self-sacrifice as he well knew that in giving up the only parachute within reach, he was forfeiting any chance of saving his own life. Such an act of heroism and humanity ranks with the very highest traditions of the Royal Air Force, besides establishing him as a very gallant and courageous officer who, by his action, displayed the most conspicuous heroism.

Since then, a memorial has been dedicated to those who died, so their names may live on and so that the tragic accident may never be forgotten.

It was during this early part of the 1950s, that it was decided to upgrade Leeming to accept more jets, a new perimeter track and an extension to the runway was needed, better radio networks and accommodation blocks were required. Work began over the winter of 1951/52 which caused major disruption for those stationed at the base; so to allow flying to continue, it was decided to transfer the O.C.U. to RAF Coltishall. To add insult to injury, the snow and bad weather of 1951/52 further delayed the transfer of the O.C.U., the process not being completed until February at the earliest. By the summer though, work was almost completed and the O.C.U. returned now having in excess of 40 Meteors on its books. Leeming had now properly entered the jet age.

The increase in world tensions and improvements to the Air Force’s readiness, saw many reviews of the training programmes. Leeming’s wing was divided into three squadrons, each one focusing on a different aspect of flying training. Students would pass though each section before being allocated to an operational unit.

During the mid 50’s yet more work was carried at Leeming, including resurfacing of runways, a new airfield lighting system and further extensions to the accommodation areas. A new Vampire also emerged, the T.II, and new a Meteor, the NF.12.

1956 would see the jet age take a step further, with more new models arriving at Leeming destined for the O.C.U., that of Gloster’s Delta winged Javelin F.A.W.5.  To deal with the lack of trained crews required by the increase in numbers of squadrons waiting to transfer over to the Javelin, a ground training section was created within 228 O.C.U. – that of the Javelin Mobile Training Unit (J.M.T.U.) in early 1957.

Set up using simulators and radar equipment in caravans, a flying classroom was provided in one of two Vickers Valletas, a twin engined aircraft used to replace the Dakotas used in wartime. Gradually over time, a dedicated trainer version of the Javelin was brought in, the T.3, which meant that by 1959, the J.M.T.U. was no longer required, and it was disbanded.

The Javelin’s ingress into squadron life was slow,  until the September of 1957, when 33 Squadron (reformed following the disbandment of 264 Sqn) arrived at Leeming. Initially bringing more Meteors, they transitioned over to the Javelin F.A.W. 7 in the summer of the following year. Based on a design requirement F.44/46 for a twin-seat all weather / night fighter, the Javelin was developed into over ten different marks before its production was finally curtailed.

33 Sqn would not stay long though, apart from a short revisit it departed Leeming a year later, moving to Middleton St. George, now Durham Tees Valley Airport.

The transference to the Javelin was now happening in earnest, and with so many front line squadrons converting to the Javelin, it was imperative that training was increased. However, politics would play their part in the downfall of 228 O.C.U. and its eventual, but temporary, demise. With somewhere in the region of over eighty aircraft operated by the squadron, Duncan Sandy’s 1957 Defence White Paper would see RAF units cut back once more as numbers were reduced in light of perceived changes in the style and nature of any future nuclear war. The O.C.U. was therefore, disbanded in 1962 after it had moved to Middleton St George, its role ceasing after many years of active and all but unbroken duty since 1929.

The White Paper of 1957 is often considered as one of aviation’s greatest scythes cutting five major aircraft projects and two engine development programmes.  The first of these, the Avro 730 was followed by, the Saunders-Roe SR.177, the Short Seamew (a small lightweight anti-submarine aircraft), the Fairey Delta 3 Long Range Interceptor and the The Hawker P.1121. The Lightning was also hit hard but survived the cull to fill the gap between manned interceptors and ground to air missiles. Whilst cancelling these projects others did survive, the thin Wing Javelin (cancelled post White paper), the Hunter, and of course the Harrier, a remarkable leap in aviation*9.

A number of visiting units stopped by at Leeming during this turbulent time of the late 1950s / early 1960s. This brought a lot of aircraft and a lot of personnel, which Leeming, as an already cramped base, could not ideally hold. But the extensive range of aircraft must have made for excellent viewing for those interested in aviation.

Following the departure of 228 O.C.U., Leeming would immediately be occupied by another unit. The arrival of No. 3 Flying Training School (F.T.S.), under the control of 23 Group Flying Training Command.

In the last part of this trail, we see how Leeming became a front line operational station, giving up the training role to accommodate the R.A.F.’s modern front line fighter of the time the Tornado.

The full Trail can be seen in Trail 57.