Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 trail (Part 4).

In Part 3 we saw how Dishforth turned from a bomber base to one of training, its role had gone full circle. Now the war was drawing to a close, its future left hanging in the balance. With the dawn of the jet age, opportunities are there but Dishforth gets left out. As Bombers are withdrawn, a new type appears though, and many appear here at Dishforth.

As 1945 dawned, it was becoming clear that the war’s end was in sight. Conversion courses to heavy bombers were being scaled back as losses fell and the need for more crews diminished. On April 6th, the HCU was officially disbanded and the staff posted elsewhere.

1945 would also see the end of 6 (RCAF) Group, the group that had flown almost 40,000 sorties with a loss of 10,000 aircrew from its several Yorkshires bases, Dishforth of course, being one of the first.

Not long after the disposal of the HCU, the 1695 (Bomber) Defence Training Flight, a unit set up to work in conjunction with the HCUs, was also disbanded.  In July 1945, the unit flew its last flight and its Spitfires, Hurricanes, Martinets and Air Speed Oxfords all departed Dishforth. The fighter element had also now gone from this historic base.

For the next couple of years little would happen at Dishforth, the Canadian link was broken, bombers were removed and the airfield remained relatively quiet. However, it was to see the four engined Halifax return once more, albeit very briefly.

1948 was a year of change, with no need for bombers, transport aircraft were to be the new type appearing at Dishforth. Conversion Units continuing on where the HCUs left off. 240 Operational Conversion Unit (OCU) made an appearance with a second, 241 OCU forming on January 5th 1948. Formed out of the renumbering of 1332 Heavy Transport Conversion Unit, they operated  a mix of Halifaxes, Hastings, Yorks and Vallettas all of which had now become the flavour of the day.  With these new units coming in, other units such as No 1381 (Transport) Conversion Unit, were disbanded.

Handley Page Hastings C Mk 1, location unknown. (©IWM ATP 16063D)

Another squadron, 47 Sqn also appeared at Dishforth that year. In September, they transferred in from RAF Fairford, and immediately began replacing their ageing Halifaxes with the Hastings C.1 transport aircraft. They remained at Dishforth for just a year, moving on to nearby Topcliffe in the autumn of 1949. This was mirrored  by 297 Sqn, who also came, swapped their Halifaxes and then also departed to Topcliffe.

240 OCU led Dishforth into the new decade. In April 1951, further changes saw them disband and amalgamate with 240 to form 242 OCU, but still the Vallettas and Hastings were top dog. As time progressed they would convert to Argosys, Beverleys and eventually the Hercules, moving on to eventually disband at RAF Lyneham in 1992.

The mid 50’s saw other changes, with 30 Sqn arriving in April also operating the  Beverley C1 until its departure in 1959, and 215 Sqn in April 1956 with the Pioneer CC1. Originally a First World War Sqn they had operated a range of aircraft including the Virginia, Harrow, Wellington, Liberator (B-24) and Dakota, before disbandment and reformation here. They solely operated from this airfield before again being disbanded and reformed as 230 Sqn here at Dishforth in 1958. By November though they would also go the way of their predecessors and move out, this time to Nicosia, before returning (briefly via Dishforth in April 1959) to Upavon.

Another Dakota unit,  1325 (Transport) Flight operated from here in the August of 1956, before it too departed, eventually disbanding in Singapore in 1960.

By the end of the 50s, all these units had departed and Dishforth’s future was now in the balance. With no RAF Flying there seemed little point in keeping it open.

Small training aircraft from other Yorkshire bases including Leeming, Topcliffe and Linton-On-Ouse, then used the base as a satellite and emergency landing ground. The Jet Provosts of 1 FTS and 3 FTS being frequent users.

With the withdrawal of all RAF personnel, Dishforth was handed over to the Army Air Corp who based a number of helicopter units here during the 1990s and early 2000s. These units primarily: 657 ; 659; 664; 669; 670; 671 and 672 Sqns all operated the Lynx or Gazelle helicopters in a range of roles.

As of 2021, Dishforth remains in the possession of the Army, home to 6 Regiment Royal Logistics Corp, who consist of three squadrons: 62 Squadron and 64 Squadron (both hybrid squadrons made up of Drivers and Logistic Supply Specialists) and 600 HQ Squadron including the Regimental Head Quarters who provide support to the other two task squadrons. Their role is to provide logistic support to 1 UK Division, preparing forces for both fixed and responsive tasks.

With other non military units using the site as well, Dishforth’s future is once again in doubt. A large airfield, with extensive hangar space and ground area, it is ideally located near to the A1 road. The tower has recently been boarded up and parts of the perimeter track are beginning to decay, Dishforth too will soon close (earmarked for closure in 2031) under Government cutbacks, but hopefully its history will live on and the memories of those who passed though its doors will remain alive and well.

Dishforth currently remains an active Military site and as such access is limited. The A168 runs parallel to the main runway between it and the A1. The hangars remain, the tower is also present although in the last two years or so it has been boarded up. Remnants of the Second World War can be found round the perimeter by using the smaller roads around the base, but again these are restricted.

With the recent announcement of the closure of Linton-On-Ouse, both Dishforth and Topcliffe will also close, three more of Britain’s war time bomber airfields will then be gone from Britain’s landscape.

The full page can be seen in Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 Trail.

Sources and further reading.

*1Bygone Times‘  – Halifax LK930 remembered and a tale of two Palterton village heroes. by Jack Richards. A web page detailing the crash of LK930 on the night of 21st/22nd March.

National Archives AIR-27-141-1

National Archives AIR-27-660-1

National Archives AIR-27-1837-1

Harris, A., “Bomber Offensive‘ 1998, Greenhill Books.

Millar, G., “The Bruneval Raid – Stealing Hitler’s Radar” 1974, Cassell & Co.

RCAF 425 Alouettes Sqn – a blog honouring 425 Sqn by Pierre Lagacé

Ward. C., “4 Group Bomber Command” 2012, Pen & Sword.

Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 trail (Part 3).

In Part 2 we saw the first of the Canadian units form at Dishforth, still a new unit, they very quickly become part of the new 6 Group (RCAF).  As they began operations over occupied Europe, they quickly learnt that war brings casualties. We also see that Dishforth soon becomes ‘upgraded’ to a Standard ‘A’ specification airfield, and then the Canadians move out and a new training unit move in. The aircraft now get bigger.

The new year brought new changes both at Dishforth and within the RAF. Expansion of the force saw a new Group born, that of 6 (RCAF) Group, and after some four years of wrangling between the Canadians and the British, all but two of the Canadian squadrons, and their airfields, were transferred over to RAF control. The formation of the Group was with mixed emotions though, the Canadians having no control nor say over its operation, but still paying the bill for the squadrons for the duration of the war – a rather one sided agreement in the eyes of the Canadians. However, the expansion increased Squadron numbers, now some 37% of the RAF’s pilots were from the Dominion and of these, almost two-thirds were Canadian.

On January 1st 1943, 6 (RCAF) Group was therefore officially up and running, and it would be now that 426 Sqn would become operational.

Their start to the war began with an attack on the French port at Lorient on the night of 14th/15th January. 6 Group’s first attack as an operational group, was part of a 122 strong aircraft formation, sending nine Wellingtons and six Halifaxes. Only two aircraft were lost that night, both Wellingtons, one a Polish crew from 300 Sqn and the other a Canadian crew from 426 Sqn.

The aircraft, piloted by 21 year old P.O. George Milne (s/n:J/9355), was lost without trace, presumably crashing into the sea on its way to the target, it was not heard from since leaving Dishforth at 22:37.

Within a month of 6 Group’s inauguration, 426 Sqn would suffer a heavy blow when its Commanding Officer Wing Commander Blanchard would be shot down whilst returning from Germany. The aircraft, a Wellington III ‘X3420’ was shot down by Hauptmann Manfred Meurer near Limburg with the loss of all six crewmen. It was a bitter blow to the fledgling squadron.

The role of commander then passed to Wing Commander Leslie Crooks DFC a non-Canadian, he would lead the squadron into battle on numerous occasions. A brave and determined leader, he would soon add a DSO to his collection, dutifully awarded after surviving an attack from a night fighter, when he nursed the stricken bomber home. Unable to land the aircraft due to its extensive damage, he ordered the crew to bail out leaving the Wellington to its ultimate and final fate.  Crooks, would go on to lead further operational missions with the squadron, but sadly his luck would run out over Peenemunde on the night of August 17th/18th 1943 when he was lost for good.

The time then came to upgrade Dishforth, its now unsuitable surfaces needed replacing and the airfield needed bringing up to ‘modern’ standards. The two Canadian units moved out – 425 Sqn to North Africa in May, and 426 Sqn to Linton-On-Ouse in June. That left the airfield operationally silent. The bulldozers and earth-movers then moved in;  its three concrete and tarmac runways were constructed, and the whole site was upgraded to the Class ‘A’ specification. By November the works were all but complete and it was handed over to No.61 Training Base, 6 (RCAF) Group, led by the transfer in of 1664 Heavy Conversion Unit (HCU) operating the four engined heavy the Halifax Mk.III.

Formed in May 1943 at Croft, they were renamed 1664 (RCAF) ‘Caribou’ HCU on moving to Dishforth and were primarily a training unit converting pilots onto Halifaxes from other aircraft – usually twin engined bombers like the Wellington. One of their first customers was the former Dishforth unit 425 Sqn, who returned from Tunisia with their Wellingtons to convert over to the Halifax over the next month. By mid December they were all done, and they departed for RAF Tholthorpe where they picked up their new aircraft.

RAF Dishforth

A rather sad end to the Watch office.

Converting crews to the four engined types was no easy task, and whilst crews were experienced, accidents did still happen.

The first Dishforth blow came to 1664 (RCAF) HCU two days before Christmas 1943. Halifax V ‘ZU-C’ crashed after getting into difficulties whilst on a night training flight. The aircraft was partially abandoned, but three of the crew were killed and a further two were injured. This tragic accident would not be the last for the Dishforth unit though, and would draw 1943 to a sad close.

Some of these accidents were understandably down to the inexperience of crews on the new type, as the night of January 30th 1944 showed. Halifax V DG308 flown by F.L. J. Bissett DFM along with a student, came into land at Dishforth. The student inadvertently lowered the bomb doors rather than the flaps causing the aircraft to come in too fast. Bissett, in an effort to avert a catastrophe, swung the Halifax off the runway subjecting it to great stresses. As a result of this action, the undercarriage collapsed and the aircraft fell on its belly severely damaging it. But Bisset had done his job, and the student had learnt a valuable lesson.

With two further accidents on the following night, one due to a strong cross wind and the second when the aircraft hit high ground due to excessive drift, the training programmes were proving hard going for the Dishforth unit.

For some crewmen there was even the misfortune of multiple crashes, and for one man in particular, these unfortunate events occurred in the space of just one week.

For Sgt. H. (Ray) Collver, mid March would be his worst week. During a training flight on the 16th, his Halifax swung on landing, badly damaging the undercarriage. Thankfully however, there were no major injuries and all walked away relatively unhurt. But then on the night of 21st/22nd, he was on a night training flight (thought to be a nickle flight), when the port inner engine failed, and refused to feather. The cause of the problem was not clear, but the aircraft began to shake violently as a result. Before coming down in Derbyshire, Sgt. Cullver gave the order to abandon the Halifax, two of the crew escaping through the nose hatch. By then though, the bomber was too low for others to escape, the remainder of the crew were effectively trapped inside. When the aircraft hit the ground, two of the four left on board were killed, the remaining two Sgt. Russ Pym and Sgt. Cullver were injured, Cullver being thrown clear as the Halifax struck a bank aside a road*1.

On many occasions though, pilot error was not a cause, engine faults seeming to have been the primary cause of the aircraft’s demise; problems that either required an engine to be shut down or engines failing, seeming to be high on the list of causes for the squadron’s losses.

During August a Lancaster Finishing Flight was set up within the HCU at Dishforth, its job to polish pilots and crews in their Lancasters before returning them to operational units. Loses here would be far lower.

By the years end, the HCU would have lost some fifty aircraft on training flights, which for a training unit, was a substantial number of heavy aircraft and for the Command.

With the close of the war ahead, changes are in the pipeline for both the Royal Air Force and Dishforth. With the need for bombers diminishing, a new form of aircraft arrives and in good number. In the final part we see Dishforth head in to the jet era but opportunities are missed and sadly it gets left behind, its future then looks bleak.

The full page can be seen in Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 Trail.

Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 trail (Part 2).

After seeing Dishforth’s pre-war construction and arrival of its first squadrons in Part 1, we head in to 1941, more trips to Germany and a special mission to Italy.

The beginnings of 1941 were much the same for the two Dishforth units. Trips to Germany were very much the order of the day. But on February 3rd, six Whitleys from 51 Squadron were sent as part of a force to blow up the aqueduct crossing the Tragino river in the Campania province of southern Italy. Code named Operation ‘Colossus‘, it was a daring operation where troops would be parachuted into enemy territory, destroy their target and escape by submarine.

After departing to Mildenhall, the Dishforth aircraft then flew on to Malta, arriving at Luqa airfield after a long, eleven hour flight. On the night of the 11th, the plan was put in place. Two aircraft were to perform a diversionary attack on the marshalling yards at Foggia, whilst the remainder dropped members of ‘X’ Troop in the valleys near to the target. Whilst the aqueduct was successfully blown apart, none of the ground forces, nor the crew of one of the 78 Squadron Whitleys on the diversionary raid, managed to get home. All were unfortunately picked up by Italian forces and placed in POW camps. The raid being a success, had suffered high losses.

That same night, the remaining crews at Dishforth fared little better. On returning to the airfield following a raid on Bremen, they were ordered to divert to RAF Drem in Scotland. Four of the aircraft either misunderstood the instruction, got lost or ran out of fuel, resulting in each of them being abandoned over the British countryside. Unfortunately even abandoning an undamaged aircraft was not entirely safe, as nine of the twenty crewmen suffered injuries whilst doing so. All four of the aircraft were left to their inevitable and catastrophic rendezvous with mother Earth.

A new Bomber Command Directive drove the Group’s Whitleys to Germany night after night. Then a turn of focus to aircraft factories saw a change in operations, and although losses for Bomber Command were high, both the Dishforth units managed to scrape through relatively unscathed.

April saw the departure of 78 Squadron from Dishforth, this time though there would be no return, and their time here had finally come to an end.  Dishforth however, continued on, retaining its one operational squadron, that of 51 Sqn, who continued to soldier bravely on with their Whitley Vs.

Industrial targets were then once again at the forefront of Bomber Command’s agenda. 51 Sqn joining many other units on raids to the German heartland. In early May, they visited Ludwigshafen, followed by Dortmund, Duisburg and Dussledorf losing one aircraft on each operation (P5106, Z6663, Z6657, and Z6563 respectively) with the loss of all but five of the airmen on board.

Whilst 51 Sqn’s losses per operation continued to be relatively light, overall they suffered some of the highest losses for the year, some 43 aircraft being lost on operations throughout 1941. A tally that put them amongst the top five biggest losses of Bomber Command squadrons for the year.

As with many bomber stations, support and training flights also operated from these larger airfields, Dishforth was no different with 1512 Beam Approach Training Flight (formally 12 Blind Approach Training Flight) forming here in October 1941. The unit trained pilots to land in poor visibility using a system designed ironically by the Germans. Previously known as ‘Blind Approach’, it was felt the the use of the word ‘Blind’ was not very reassuring for pilots and so all units were changed to Beam. Also ironic as no beam was actually used, but more a single distorted radio transmission.

The dawn of 1942 saw more of the same for the Bombers of 51 Sqn and 4 Group. With a renewed focus on the German fleet anchored at Brest, Bomber Command would soon pay the price, and it would be Operation ‘Fuller’, that would be the cause.

On the night of February 12th, a determined and combined force of naval vessels and aircraft along with RAF aircraft, would attack the a force of mighty ships including the ScharnhorstGneisenau and Prinz Eugen as it made its way through the English Channel to home waters from Brest harbour. For over a year, the ships had been a thorn in the sides of the RAF, being damaged and repaired they could not be put out of action permanently. Patched up but not fit for heavy warfare, the attacks came in poor weather, ideal for a sea escape. The resultant allied losses were a tragedy for both services, and would leave them blooded and badly scarred.

Thankfully though, the fortunes of the Command would soon turn, albeit briefly on the night of the 27th-28th February, bringing a smile to both the faces of the British forces and the population as a whole. February would thankfully close on a good note.

The events began at Thruxton airfield, where twelve Whitley bombers were having holes cut in their floors and special doors added to allow paratroopers to jump through. This small force would be led by 51 Sqn W.C. Charles ‘Percy’ Pickard who, described as a tall, fair haired pipe-smoker, was known as a real character within 51 Sqn. Pickard’s character had been projected well beyond the mess halls of Dishforth though, noticeably after he took a leading part as Squadron Leader Dickson in ‘Target for Tonight‘; the RAF’s 1941 film about a crew on a bombing mission over Germany. Pickard would eventually leave 51 Sqn, transferring to the 2nd Tactical Air Force in Operation ‘Jerrico’, and the attack on the prison at Amiens where he met his death with almost seventy operations to his name.

The February raid was to be carried out by a small force of British Paratroops, which involved them being dropped into enemy territory to capture a secret German radar site. Once established, they were to remove vital components from the radar and bring them back to England for analysis. The raid, whilst not without its hiccups, was a huge success in the war of the electronics, and not only allowed the British to examine the workings of the radar, but also provided them with a prisoner who was one of the operational technicians at the site. The night had been a real coup, and a much needed morale booster for the RAF and the UK’s population. Known as the ‘Bruneval Raid‘, Britain now had a significant insight into the German Wurzburg radar system, and 51 Sqn played a major part in delivering those gallant men to their drop zone. For his part in the operation Pickard was awarded a bar to his DSO.

Charles ‘Percy’ Pickard (believed to be at Lissett, Yorkshire) with his dog ‘Ming’.(© IWM CH 10251)

In May 1942, 51 Sqn received orders to depart Dishforth for the base at Chivenor in Devon. This too would be their final farewell to the Yorkshire base as they would not be returning. By the end of the year they would be replacing their Whitleys with the Halifax, their last Whitley being lost whilst at Dishforth a few days prior to their departure on the night of 23rd/24th April 1942.

A short period of calm then led to further changes. It was during this ‘quiet period’, that the 1472 (Army Co-Operation) Flight formed here at Dishforth. Using only light aircraft: Battles, Tomahawks Hurricanes and Masters, they didn’t require the lengthy runways that heavy bombers needed, and operated in conjunction with land based forces primarily on training operations.

It was after this that a new Canadian unit 425 (Alouette) Sqn RCAF was formed here at Dishforth. The first ever French-Canadian unit formed in the U.K., it was led by W.C. J. St. Pierre, and was part of a Canadian force manned totally by Canadian personnel. It would not be ready and operational though until the October of 1942.  It was also during October that another Canadian squadron would be formed, also here at Dishforth, that of 426 (Thunderbird) Sqn led by W.C. Sedley Blanchard. A third unit, that of 6 Group’s Communication Flight also joined the Canadians here at Dishforth.

Both these squadrons flew the twin-engined Wellington, with its remarkable geodetic design, a sturdy aircraft it would be the main type used by the two squadrons for the next year.

425 Sqn spent the next weeks building up to operational status, training flights both cross country and in the local area being carried out when the weather permitted. It was on one of these flights that the first Wellington was lost from the squadron. During a fighter affiliation exercise, in which cloud ranged from 3/10 to 6/10 at 3,000 ft to 10/10 at higher altitudes, the 403 Sqn Spitfire ‘attacking’ the Wellington collided with the nose turret bringing down both the Spitfire and the Wellington. There were no survivors from the bomber.

Once declared operational, 425 Sqn’s inauguration into the war soon occurred. On the night of October 5th/6th 1942, they took part in a raid on Aachen. 101 Wellingtons, almost half the force, were sent to the town but weather was poor and target markers were way off track, some 17 miles away over the Dutch town of Lutterade. As a result, little significant damage was done to the target, and it was the Dutch who bore the brunt of the force. To make matters worse, 425 Sqn lost one of its aircraft, Wellington III ‘X3943’ KW-G piloted by Sgt. O’Driscoll. The first operational loss for the squadron with the entire crew being killed when the aircraft crashed in Essex on its return home.

In Part 3, we head in to 1943 where we see the official formation of 6 Group (RCAF) – the Canadians officially arrive in Yorkshire and the Group begins operations over occupied Europe. Dishforth plays a big part in those operations.

The full page can be seen in Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 Trail.

Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth Along the A1 trail (Part 1).

As we continue our journey north along the A1, the ‘Great North Road’, (Trail 54, Trail 57) we come across an airfield that began life in the prewar expansion period of the 1930s. Destined to become a bomber station for a large part of the war, it soon returned to its initial role as a training base, a role it carried on after the war’s eventual end. Today the base is still active but in the hands of the British Army, and although no major flying takes place, it does occasionally see the odd aircraft pass by.

This airfield sits alongside the A1 road, this offers opportunities to see what’s left and observe the goings on at the base. On the next part of our trail along the A1, we stop off at the former RAF Dishforth,

RAF Dishforth.

As a prewar airfield built during the expansion period, Dishforth was a ‘non-dispersed’ airfield, distinguished by having both its accommodation and technical areas located closely together. Initially it fell under the control of 3 Group Bomber Command, but would soon transfer to 4 Group for use as a training airfield for their bombers; a Command which in itself was also born out of the expansion era of the 1930s.

By the war’s end, Dishforth would have grown considerably, eventually being capable of catering for over 2,500 personnel, and upgraded to the standard Class ‘A’ specification with three concrete and tarmac runways (1 at 2,000 and 2 at 1,400 yards in length). The main runway runs parallel to the main A1 road, in a north-west to south-east direction, with the two subsidiary runways running east / west and north-east to south-west, thus forming the recognisable ‘A’ shape of this airfield design.

Around the perimeter were twenty-seven pan and eleven spectacle hardstands, and to the south-east, located between the legs of the ‘A’, were five ‘C’ type hangars and a range of ancillary, technical and storage buildings. The Watch office, initially located between the hangers overlooking the pan, was later rebuilt to the north of the airfield over looking the entire flying site now to the south.

Alongside Dishforth came airfields at Linton-on-Ouse, Driffield, Leconfield and Finningley, all of which would see a range of light and medium bombers grace their runways. Other major airfields built at this time included the bomber bases at Wyton and Upwood in Cambridgeshire, Scampton in Lincolnshire and the fighter airfield at Debden in Essex, the RAF was indeed expanding at great speed.

On January 12th 1937, the first of the squadrons arrived, 10 Squadron RAF, with a mix of Heyfords and Virginias. The move was led by the advanced party, followed by the main party on the 25th and the rear party on the 2nd February. Whilst settling in and preparing the airfield for operations, they were joined by another squadron, 78 Sqn, also with Heyford IIIs.

K3489 the first production Handley Page Heyford the last biplane heavy bomber. These aircraft were well liked at the time and were, unbelievably, able to be looped as was seen at the 1935 Hendon Air show.  Note the retractable gun turret. (©IWM ATP 7352C)

Within a month of their arrival at Dishforth though, 10 sqn would begin to replace these now obsolete biplanes with Whitleys, flying both the MK.I and later the much improved Merlin powered MK.IV, until their eventual departure from Dishforth in July 1940. The first of these Tiger IX powered MK.Is arrived on the 9th March, followed by sporadic arrivals culminating at the end of June, with a full complement of aircraft; the last of these being Whitley K7195 on the June 25th.

One of the highlights for 10 squadron’s posting to Dishforth, was to perform a ‘set piece’ at the 1937 Hendon Air Show, five Dishforth aircraft performing well to the gathered crowds below. This was nothing new to the Squadron, having previously performed at Mildenhall for the King’s review and at Old Sarum for an Indian Army Officers School, both in July 1935.

Over the remainder of the year and into 1938, a number of observer calibration flights took place. These were later supplemented with squadron operations, under what was described as ‘war conditions’, and although repeatedly hampered by bad weather, the squadron managed 3,733 daylight hours and 752 night flying hours, over the two year period.

78 Sqn, which was officially reformed on 1st November 1936 under the command of Wing Commander M.B. Frew DSO, MC, AFC, was also assigned the obsolete aircraft. With a second flight forming in April 1937, they too soon began updating these models with both the MK.I and later in 1939, the MKIVa Whitleys.

Following the disbandment of the rather mashed together Air Defence Great Britain (ADGB) and the introduction of the four commands (Fighter, Bomber, Training and Coastal), Dishforth and its two squadrons would now fall under the control of the newly formed 4 Group. With Air Commodore A. T. Harris as its (short lived) lead, 4 Group’s headquarters made its move from Mildenhall to Linton-on-Ouse, only a few miles to the south-east of Dishforth. Yorkshire would now become the county synonymous with the Group and its aircraft.

4 Group had struggled obtaining a suitable bombing range to use with its Whitleys, Harris, in his book ‘Bomber Offensive‘, talks about being frustrated because he repeatedly came up against local objections. Abbotsford was one such site that dragged on largely due to objections about the local swan population. As it turned out, having a range actually kept people away and as a result the swans thrived!

The dawn of 1939 would herald a new era. January introduced Dishforth to the forthcoming events with the loss Whitley K7211 off the coast of Kent. The last message from the aircraft being received  at 18:20 on January 23rd. There then followed an extensive search, but despite the efforts of the Royal Navy, neither the aircraft, nor its crew, were ever found, and the Whitley along with its crew remains missing to his day.

The declaration of war by Neville Chamberlain in September 1939, shook the nation. It brought with it immediate mobilisation orders to the Group. Within days 10 Squadron were ordered to send eight aircraft on a reconnaissance and ‘Nickle‘ flight over northern Germany. Following Air Plan No. 14, they were loaded with propaganda leaflets, the aircraft then flew over the ‘target’ dropping these ‘paper bombs’ on the citizens below. Returning anti-aircraft fire was light and sporadic, and as a result, all aircraft returned without incident.

RAF Dishforth

Two of Dishforth’s five hangars.

On the night of the 21st, two more 10 Sqn aircraft were ordered out on another Nickle operation, this time over Bremen and Hamburg; an additional order was given to “create a disturbance in Berlin”. Again no enemy aircraft were encountered, and anti-aircraft fire was very light. But with that, and a flight of three more Whitleys on the night of 1st/2nd October, 10 Sqn had gained the honour of being the first allied squadron to fly over the German capital during wartime.

Meanwhile, Dishforth’s other squadron, 78 Sqn, were allocated as 4 Group’s Reserve Squadron, acting as a pool for training crews and a reservoir for the Group’s other front line squadrons. I wonder if, at the time, there were any reservations about such a move from those within the squadron.

However, by early October 1939 a move was on the cards for 78 Sqn. Linton-on-Ouse was now calling, and early in the morning of 15th the move had begun with the Whitleys landing at Linton. This move, a few miles south, would temporarily leave Dishforth with only one operational squadron.

This lull lasted until early December, when 51 Sqn joined those at Dishforth. Like other squadrons, they had ditched their ageing Virginias for the more modern Whitley and were now in the process of upgrading these to the MK.V.

The winter of 1939/40 was a harsh one, and as a result little flying took place from the snowed in Dishforth. With only a short lull in February, aircraft were well and truly ‘frozen in’ for the large part of the winter months. It was most certainly a cold start to the war, and even when the thaw came, the ground remained dangerous to fly from due to water logging from the melting snow.

Following the German invasion of Denmark and Norway, 4 Group’s aircraft began attacks on airfields and supply routes being used by the Germans. Both 51 Sqn and 10 Sqn visited several of these airfields including Aalbourg on the night of 22nd-23rd April. On this operation, one of 51 Sqn’s aircraft, Whitely IV ‘MH-G’ piloted by F.O. J Birch, was lost without trace not long after departing Dishforth at 21:50.

By July 1940, the Battle of Britain was in full swing and 10 Sqn were moving out; the period between January and July being filled with numerous and relatively uneventful trips to Germany. Barely cold, their vacant beds were quickly filled by 78 Squadron, who had previously departed to Linton-on-Ouse; now they were given orders to return back to Dishforth.

The month of July had been one of some confusion for the squadron, initial orders requiring they transfer to the unfinished RAF Leeming, the place where kit and materials had, by now, been sent. What’s more, they were also informed that they would continue performing the role of reserve squadron whilst at Leeming, but now however, on moving to Dishforth, they were made fully operational for the first time since war had broken out with Germany.

The move went relatively smoothly, aircraft were deposited at Topcliffe (Dishforth’s satellite) with personnel transferring directly to Dishforth. The move involved organising transport from not only Linton, but also York and Leeming too, such was the wide spread of both men and equipment. As a result, “very little useful work” was done, the primary objective being to reorganise the squadron following the confusion of the orders and counter orders over the previous weeks.

A Whitley at an unknown location revving up its engines. © IWM CH 681

As we leave 1940 behind and head to 1941, we see, part 2, what changes come to Dishforth. There are more ventures into Germany and a special mission to Italy that results in success but at a great cost.

The full page can be seen in Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 Trail.