Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 trail (Part 2).

After seeing Dishforth’s pre-war construction and arrival of its first squadrons in Part 1, we head in to 1941, more trips to Germany and a special mission to Italy.

The beginnings of 1941 were much the same for the two Dishforth units. Trips to Germany were very much the order of the day. But on February 3rd, six Whitleys from 51 Squadron were sent as part of a force to blow up the aqueduct crossing the Tragino river in the Campania province of southern Italy. Code named Operation ‘Colossus‘, it was a daring operation where troops would be parachuted into enemy territory, destroy their target and escape by submarine.

After departing to Mildenhall, the Dishforth aircraft then flew on to Malta, arriving at Luqa airfield after a long, eleven hour flight. On the night of the 11th, the plan was put in place. Two aircraft were to perform a diversionary attack on the marshalling yards at Foggia, whilst the remainder dropped members of ‘X’ Troop in the valleys near to the target. Whilst the aqueduct was successfully blown apart, none of the ground forces, nor the crew of one of the 78 Squadron Whitleys on the diversionary raid, managed to get home. All were unfortunately picked up by Italian forces and placed in POW camps. The raid being a success, had suffered high losses.

That same night, the remaining crews at Dishforth fared little better. On returning to the airfield following a raid on Bremen, they were ordered to divert to RAF Drem in Scotland. Four of the aircraft either misunderstood the instruction, got lost or ran out of fuel, resulting in each of them being abandoned over the British countryside. Unfortunately even abandoning an undamaged aircraft was not entirely safe, as nine of the twenty crewmen suffered injuries whilst doing so. All four of the aircraft were left to their inevitable and catastrophic rendezvous with mother Earth.

A new Bomber Command Directive drove the Group’s Whitleys to Germany night after night. Then a turn of focus to aircraft factories saw a change in operations, and although losses for Bomber Command were high, both the Dishforth units managed to scrape through relatively unscathed.

April saw the departure of 78 Squadron from Dishforth, this time though there would be no return, and their time here had finally come to an end.  Dishforth however, continued on, retaining its one operational squadron, that of 51 Sqn, who continued to soldier bravely on with their Whitley Vs.

Industrial targets were then once again at the forefront of Bomber Command’s agenda. 51 Sqn joining many other units on raids to the German heartland. In early May, they visited Ludwigshafen, followed by Dortmund, Duisburg and Dussledorf losing one aircraft on each operation (P5106, Z6663, Z6657, and Z6563 respectively) with the loss of all but five of the airmen on board.

Whilst 51 Sqn’s losses per operation continued to be relatively light, overall they suffered some of the highest losses for the year, some 43 aircraft being lost on operations throughout 1941. A tally that put them amongst the top five biggest losses of Bomber Command squadrons for the year.

As with many bomber stations, support and training flights also operated from these larger airfields, Dishforth was no different with 1512 Beam Approach Training Flight (formally 12 Blind Approach Training Flight) forming here in October 1941. The unit trained pilots to land in poor visibility using a system designed ironically by the Germans. Previously known as ‘Blind Approach’, it was felt the the use of the word ‘Blind’ was not very reassuring for pilots and so all units were changed to Beam. Also ironic as no beam was actually used, but more a single distorted radio transmission.

The dawn of 1942 saw more of the same for the Bombers of 51 Sqn and 4 Group. With a renewed focus on the German fleet anchored at Brest, Bomber Command would soon pay the price, and it would be Operation ‘Fuller’, that would be the cause.

On the night of February 12th, a determined and combined force of naval vessels and aircraft along with RAF aircraft, would attack the a force of mighty ships including the ScharnhorstGneisenau and Prinz Eugen as it made its way through the English Channel to home waters from Brest harbour. For over a year, the ships had been a thorn in the sides of the RAF, being damaged and repaired they could not be put out of action permanently. Patched up but not fit for heavy warfare, the attacks came in poor weather, ideal for a sea escape. The resultant allied losses were a tragedy for both services, and would leave them blooded and badly scarred.

Thankfully though, the fortunes of the Command would soon turn, albeit briefly on the night of the 27th-28th February, bringing a smile to both the faces of the British forces and the population as a whole. February would thankfully close on a good note.

The events began at Thruxton airfield, where twelve Whitley bombers were having holes cut in their floors and special doors added to allow paratroopers to jump through. This small force would be led by 51 Sqn W.C. Charles ‘Percy’ Pickard who, described as a tall, fair haired pipe-smoker, was known as a real character within 51 Sqn. Pickard’s character had been projected well beyond the mess halls of Dishforth though, noticeably after he took a leading part as Squadron Leader Dickson in ‘Target for Tonight‘; the RAF’s 1941 film about a crew on a bombing mission over Germany. Pickard would eventually leave 51 Sqn, transferring to the 2nd Tactical Air Force in Operation ‘Jerrico’, and the attack on the prison at Amiens where he met his death with almost seventy operations to his name.

The February raid was to be carried out by a small force of British Paratroops, which involved them being dropped into enemy territory to capture a secret German radar site. Once established, they were to remove vital components from the radar and bring them back to England for analysis. The raid, whilst not without its hiccups, was a huge success in the war of the electronics, and not only allowed the British to examine the workings of the radar, but also provided them with a prisoner who was one of the operational technicians at the site. The night had been a real coup, and a much needed morale booster for the RAF and the UK’s population. Known as the ‘Bruneval Raid‘, Britain now had a significant insight into the German Wurzburg radar system, and 51 Sqn played a major part in delivering those gallant men to their drop zone. For his part in the operation Pickard was awarded a bar to his DSO.

Charles ‘Percy’ Pickard (believed to be at Lissett, Yorkshire) with his dog ‘Ming’.(© IWM CH 10251)

In May 1942, 51 Sqn received orders to depart Dishforth for the base at Chivenor in Devon. This too would be their final farewell to the Yorkshire base as they would not be returning. By the end of the year they would be replacing their Whitleys with the Halifax, their last Whitley being lost whilst at Dishforth a few days prior to their departure on the night of 23rd/24th April 1942.

A short period of calm then led to further changes. It was during this ‘quiet period’, that the 1472 (Army Co-Operation) Flight formed here at Dishforth. Using only light aircraft: Battles, Tomahawks Hurricanes and Masters, they didn’t require the lengthy runways that heavy bombers needed, and operated in conjunction with land based forces primarily on training operations.

It was after this that a new Canadian unit 425 (Alouette) Sqn RCAF was formed here at Dishforth. The first ever French-Canadian unit formed in the U.K., it was led by W.C. J. St. Pierre, and was part of a Canadian force manned totally by Canadian personnel. It would not be ready and operational though until the October of 1942.  It was also during October that another Canadian squadron would be formed, also here at Dishforth, that of 426 (Thunderbird) Sqn led by W.C. Sedley Blanchard. A third unit, that of 6 Group’s Communication Flight also joined the Canadians here at Dishforth.

Both these squadrons flew the twin-engined Wellington, with its remarkable geodetic design, a sturdy aircraft it would be the main type used by the two squadrons for the next year.

425 Sqn spent the next weeks building up to operational status, training flights both cross country and in the local area being carried out when the weather permitted. It was on one of these flights that the first Wellington was lost from the squadron. During a fighter affiliation exercise, in which cloud ranged from 3/10 to 6/10 at 3,000 ft to 10/10 at higher altitudes, the 403 Sqn Spitfire ‘attacking’ the Wellington collided with the nose turret bringing down both the Spitfire and the Wellington. There were no survivors from the bomber.

Once declared operational, 425 Sqn’s inauguration into the war soon occurred. On the night of October 5th/6th 1942, they took part in a raid on Aachen. 101 Wellingtons, almost half the force, were sent to the town but weather was poor and target markers were way off track, some 17 miles away over the Dutch town of Lutterade. As a result, little significant damage was done to the target, and it was the Dutch who bore the brunt of the force. To make matters worse, 425 Sqn lost one of its aircraft, Wellington III ‘X3943’ KW-G piloted by Sgt. O’Driscoll. The first operational loss for the squadron with the entire crew being killed when the aircraft crashed in Essex on its return home.

In Part 3, we head in to 1943 where we see the official formation of 6 Group (RCAF) – the Canadians officially arrive in Yorkshire and the Group begins operations over occupied Europe. Dishforth plays a big part in those operations.

The full page can be seen in Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 Trail.

8 thoughts on “Trail 61 – RAF Dishforth – Along the A1 trail (Part 2).

  1. Never heard of Dishforth unfortunately but it sounds like it was a critical station for bomber command during those war years. So much history and so many lives lost in such a short time (sounds like a Churchill speech).

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Another exciting episode, detailing Dishforth’s mixed fortunes. Incidentally, the “Beam” was based on the Lorenz Blind Approach and Landing System. At 20 to 30km from the start of the runway, the Pilot flew to a predetermined altitude and tuned in to the frequency of the beam. He would hear Morse dots if he was on the left side of the correct track and Morse dashes on the right side. If the Pilot was on the correct, central track he’d hear “Equi-signal”, a steady note in his earphones. There were two other signals that cut across this “beam” to guide the pilot down to the runway. The first at 3km from the start of the runway, told him to follow a preset descent path and the second was 300m from the start of the runway. If he couldn’t see the runway after hearing the second signal, that was his cue to abort the landing. Simple but effective. Lufthansa pioneered the system in 1934 and once proven, it was sold worldwide. Of course, the Luftwaffe adapted it, as did the RAF, but the Germans developed their Knickebein and X-Garat blind bombing systems from it and the Coventry raid among others, would cruelly attest to the accuracy of it.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you for the detailed explanation Mitch. There is a rather excellent book entitled ‘Instruments of Darkness’ by Alfred Price which looks at the various electronic measures used throughout the Second World War. It a great read for anyone interested in this aspect. I#d recommend it.

      Liked by 1 person

  3. Another excellently written slice of Dishforth’s history. We cannot comprehend nowadays just how many young men were killed in those dark days of the Second World War. Personally, I am always sad to see those all too frequent accidents when a fighter practices attacking a bomber but only succeeds in killing himself and everybody in the bomber. I wonder if their was some particular error which everybody made. My only idea is that I read somewhere that it was dangerous to fly close to a B-29 which was well capable of using the turbulence it created to bring down close flying small aircraft.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you John. Turbulence may well have been part of the problem certainly it can be an issue when flying closely together as was experienced by many bomber crews of the USAAF. I think, in many instances, it was simply a misjudgment made in the circumstances at the time. Whatever the cause though, it was a very sad end to many young lives.

      Like

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